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BACKGROUND Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and(More)
AIMS Status epilepticus is common in children with severe falciparum malaria and is associated with poor outcome. Phenytoin is often used to control status epilepticus, but its water-soluble prodrug, fosphenytoin, may be more useful as it is easier to administer. We studied the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of phenytoin and fosphenytoin sodium in(More)
AIMS Convulsions are a common complication of severe malaria in children and are associated with poor outcome. Diazepam is used to terminate convulsions but its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been studied in this group. Accordingly, we carried out a comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of intravenous (i.v.) and rectal (p.r.) diazepam.(More)
PURPOSE Multiple, prolonged, generalized, or focal seizures are common in children with severe malaria, with or without coma. In other contexts, such seizures have been associated with the development of epilepsy. The relation between falciparum malaria and epilepsy is undetermined; thus we measured the prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy in children(More)
AIMS Phenobarbital is commonly used to treat status epilepticus in resource-poor countries. Although a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) is recommended, this dose, administered intramuscularly (i.m.) for prophylaxis, is associated with an increase in mortality in children with cerebral malaria. We evaluated a 15-mg kg(-1) intravenous (i.v.) dose of phenobarbital to(More)
Abnormal motor posturing is often observed in children with cerebral malaria, but the aetiology and pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study examined the risk factors and outcome of posturing in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria. Records of children admitted to Kilifi district hospital with cerebral malaria from January, 1999 through December, 2001(More)
High cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) and low haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) predict neurological complications in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) but any association is unclear. In a cross-sectional study of 105 Kenyan children, mean CBFv was 120 +/- 34.9 cm/s; 3 had conditional CBFv (170-199 cm/s) but none had abnormal CBFv (>200 cm/s). After(More)
AIMS Some children with malaria and convulsions also have concurrent bacterial meningitis. Chloramphenicol is used to treat the latter whereas phenytoin is used for convulsions. Since chloramphenicol inhibits the metabolism of phenytoin in vivo, we studied the effects of chloramphenicol on phenytoin pharmacokinetics in children with malaria. METHODS(More)
A rapid, sensitive and selective gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection was developed for the determination of paraldehyde in small blood samples taken from children. Whole blood samples (300 microl) collected in a 3 ml Wheaton glass sample vial were spiked with acetone (internal standard: 15 ng) followed by addition of concentrated(More)
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