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BACKGROUND Whether cannabis can cause psychotic or affective symptoms that persist beyond transient intoxication is unclear. We systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to cannabis use and occurrence of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, ISI Proceedings, ZETOC,(More)
OBJECTIVES An association between use of cannabis in adolescence and subsequent risk of schizophrenia was previously reported in a follow up of Swedish conscripts. Arguments were raised that this association may be due to use of drugs other than cannabis and that personality traits may have confounded results. We performed a further analysis of this cohort(More)
Prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have met with limited success. We sought to increase statistical power to detect disease loci by conducting a GWAS mega-analysis for MDD. In the MDD discovery phase, we analyzed more than 1.2 million autosomal and X chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 759(More)
BACKGROUND Although it is universally accepted that human disease and behavior depend upon both environmental and genetic variation, a view supported by family and twin studies, examples of environmental interactions with genes identified at the molecular level (G x E) are not so well established. METHODS We carried out a systematic review and(More)
IMPORTANCE Longitudinal studies have linked the systemic inflammatory markers interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) with the risk of developing heart disease and diabetes mellitus, which are common comorbidities for depression and psychosis. Recent meta-analyses of cross-sectional studies have reported increased serum levels of these(More)
IMPORTANCE Some small studies suggest that maternal postnatal depression is a risk factor for offspring adolescent depression. However, to our knowledge, no large cohort studies have addressed this issue. Furthermore, only 1 small study has examined the association between antenatal depression and later offspring depression. Understanding these associations(More)
OBJECTIVE There is little information about obsessive-compulsive disorder in large representative community samples. The authors aimed to establish obsessive-compulsive disorder prevalence and its clinical typology among adults in private households in Great Britain and to obtain generalizable estimates of impairment and help-seeking. METHOD Data from the(More)
CONTEXT Longitudinal studies indicate that a lower IQ score increases risk of schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence suggests there is no such effect for nonpsychotic bipolar disorder. To our knowledge, there are no prior population-based, longitudinal studies of premorbid IQ score and risk of developing severe depression requiring hospital admission. (More)
BACKGROUND Non-clinical psychotic symptoms appear common in children, but it is possible that a proportion of reported symptoms result from misinterpretation. There is a well-established association between pre-morbid low IQ score and schizophrenia. Psychosis-like symptoms in children may also be a risk factor for psychotic disorder but their relationship(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy with attention control and usual school provision for adolescents at high risk of depression. DESIGN Three arm parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING Eight UK secondary schools. PARTICIPANTS Adolescents (n=5030) aged 12-16 years in school year groups(More)