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The role of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in disease pathogenesis is unclear. We show that HERV-K is activated in a subpopulation of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and that its envelope (env) protein may contribute to neurodegeneration. The virus was expressed in cortical and spinal neurons of ALS patients, but not in(More)
Proinflammatory factors from activated T cells inhibit neurogenesis in adult animal brain and cultured human fetal neural stem cells (NSC). However, the role of inhibition of neurogenesis in human neuroinflammatory diseases is still uncertain because of the difficulty in obtaining adult NSC from patients. Recent developments in cell reprogramming suggest(More)
The effect of nutrition and dietary supplements on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a topic of great interest to both patients and clinicians. In particular, vitamin D status has been shown to influence both the incidence and the course of MS. High vitamin D levels are probably protective against the development of MS, although the efficacy of(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon beta has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is believed that immunomodulatory rather than antiviral activity of interferon beta is responsible for disease amelioration. The impact of interferon beta on the chemoattraction of immune cells has not been fully addressed. OBJECTIVE To address the influence of(More)
OBJECTIVE Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by JC virus (JCV), can occur in patients receiving natalizumab for multiple sclerosis (MS). JCV detection by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or brain biopsy, is required for probable or definite diagnosis of PML. However, in some patients only low(More)
Survival in people infected with HIV has improved because of an increasingly powerful array of antiretroviral treatments, but neurological symptoms due to comorbid conditions, including infection with hepatitis C virus, malnutrition, and the effects of accelerated cardiovascular disease and ageing, are increasingly salient. A therapeutic gap seems to exist(More)
Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are characterized by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis often involving the recruitment of B cells. Little is still known about B cells that are found in the CSF during neuroinflammation. To address the phenotype of these B cells, we studied the distribution of the major B cell subsets in(More)
OBJECTIVE Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is frequently associated with intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, but little is known about the B-cell response in the CSF of these patients. In this study, we investigated the relation between virus load and the frequency(More)
This chapter will review the spectrum of immune-mediated diseases that affect the nervous system and may result in an admission to the neurological intensive care unit. Immunomodulatory strategies to treat acute exacerbations of neurological diseases caused by aberrant immune responses are discussed, but strategies for long-term immunosuppression are not(More)