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BACKGROUND Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to atherogenesis by inducing endothelial-cell injury and dysfunction. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow have a role in ongoing endothelial repair and that impaired mobilization or depletion of these cells contributes to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular(More)
Nitrite anions comprise the largest vascular storage pool of nitric oxide (NO), provided that physiological mechanisms exist to reduce nitrite to NO. We evaluated the vasodilator properties and mechanisms for bioactivation of nitrite in the human forearm. Nitrite infusions of 36 and 0.36 micromol/min into the forearm brachial artery resulted in supra- and(More)
BACKGROUND Whether patients at increased risk can be identified from a relatively low-risk population by coronary vascular function testing remains unknown. We investigated the relationship between coronary endothelial function and the occurrence of acute unpredictable cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unstable(More)
OBJECTIVE We studied the effects of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, on coronary and peripheral vascular function, platelet activation, and myocardial ischemia. BACKGROUND Nitric oxide vasodilates and inhibits platelet activation by generating cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate, which is metabolized by phosphodiesterase type 5. METHODS The(More)
OBJECTIVES Cytokine mobilization of progenitor cells from bone marrow may promote myocardial neovascularization with relief of ischemia. BACKGROUND Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have low numbers of endothelial progenitor cells compared with healthy subjects. METHODS Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), 10 microg/kg/day for five(More)
Our purpose was to determine predictors of endothelial function and potential association with cardiovascular risk in women with sedentary occupations, in whom obesity-associated risk factors may contribute to excess morbidity and mortality. Ninety consecutive women (age range 22 to 63 years, 22 overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or =25 to 29.9 kg/m(2))(More)
The endothelium-derived peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) causes vasoconstriction predominantly via smooth muscle ET(A) receptor activation. We hypothesized that ET(A) receptor inhibition would improve human coronary vascular function. We studied unobstructed coronary arteries of 44 patients with atherosclerosis or its risk factors. Epicardial diameter (D) and(More)
PURPOSE We investigated whether cardiac rehabilitation participation increases circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and benefits vasculature in patients already on stable therapy previously shown to augment EPCs and improve endothelial function. METHODS Forty-six of 50 patients with coronary artery disease completed a 36-session cardiac(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity disproportionately affects women, especially those of African descent, and is associated with increases in both fat and muscle masses. OBJECTIVE Although increased extremity muscle mass may be compensatory to fat mass load, we propose that elevated insulin levels resulting from diminished insulin sensitivity may additionally contribute(More)
Endothelin 1 mediates coronary vasoconstriction and endothelial dysfunction via endothelin receptor type A (ET(A)) activation. However, the effects of selective endothelin receptor type B (ET(B)) and combined ET(A+B) receptor blockade on coronary vasomotion are unknown. We measured coronary vascular tone and endothelium-dependent and -independent vasomotor(More)