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The alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis is the most widely used enzyme in the starch industry owing to its hyperthermostability, converting starch to medium-sized oligosaccharides. Based on sequence alignment of homologous amylases, we found a semi-conserved sequence pattern near the active site between transglycosidic and hydrolytic amylases, which(More)
By mutating Ala-289 by Phe or Tyr in the Bacillus stearothermophilus alpha-amylase, we induced this enzyme to perform alcoholytic reactions, a function not present in the wild-type enzyme. This residue was selected from homology analysis with neopullulanase, where the residue has been implicated in the control of transglycosylation [Kuriki et al. (1996) J.(More)
In all genome-sequencing projects completed to date, a considerable number of 'gaps' have been found in the biochemical pathways of the respective species. In many instances, missing enzymes are displaced by analogs, functionally equivalent proteins that have evolved independently and lack sequence and structural similarity. Here we fill such gaps by(More)
Late embryogenesis-abundant proteins accumulate to high levels in dry seeds. Some of them also accumulate in response to water deficit in vegetative tissues, which leads to a remarkable association between their presence and low water availability conditions. A major sub-group of these proteins, also known as typical LEA proteins, shows high hydrophilicity(More)
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a conserved group of proteins widely distributed in the plant kingdom that participate in the tolerance to water deficit of different plant species. In silico analyses indicate that most LEA proteins are structurally disordered. The structural plasticity of these proteins opens the question of whether water(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used worldwide as insecticides in agriculture, in forestry, and in the control of disease transmission vectors. In the lepidopteran Manduca sexta, cadherin (Bt-R(1)) and aminopeptidase-N (APN) function as Cry1A toxin receptors. The interaction with Bt-R(1) promotes cleavage of the amino-terminal end, including helix(More)
The alpha subunit of tryptophan synthase from Escherichia coli has been previously shown to contain residual structure at 5 M urea, conditions where the secondary structure is entirely disrupted and the tyrosine residues are exposed to solvent [Saab-Rincón, G., Froebe, C. L., & Matthews, C. R. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 13981-13990]. The residual structure can(More)
Chemically modified cytochrome c with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) showed activity at temperatures higher than 100 degrees C and to be highly thermostable. The molecular size of PEG moieties and the coupling site affected the thermal stabilization. An optimal PEG/protein mass ratio of 2.8 was found, producing a fully thermostable biocatalyst at 80 degrees C.(More)
The unfolding of triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) from Trypanosoma brucei (TbTIM) induced by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) was characterized. In contrast to other TIMs, where unfolding is a two or three state process, TbTIM showed two intermediates. The solvent exposure of different regions of the protein in the unfolding process was characterized(More)
Pore-forming toxins are biological weapons produced by a variety of living organisms, particularly bacteria but also by insects, reptiles, and invertebrates. These proteins affect the cell membrane of their target, disrupting permeability and leading eventually to cell death. The pore-forming toxins typically transform from soluble, monomeric proteins to(More)