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Microglia are resident inflammatory cells of the CNS and have important roles in development, homeostasis and a variety of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Difficulties in procuring human microglia have limited their study and hampered the clinical translation of microglia-based treatments shown to be effective in animal disease models. Here we report(More)
The objective of this study was to test a new version of the Magnetic Resonance Disease Severity Scale (MRDSS2), incorporating cerebral gray matter (GM) and spinal cord involvement from 3 T MRI, in modeling the relationship between MRI and physical disability or cognitive status in multiple sclerosis (MS). Fifty-five MS patients and 30 normal controls(More)
The sudden infant death syndrome is associated with a reduction in brainstem serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-HT(1A) receptor binding, yet it is unknown if and how these findings are linked. In this study, we used quantitative tissue autoradiography to determine if post-natal development of brainstem 5-HT(1A) receptors is altered in two mouse(More)
OBJECTIVE Atrophy of the corpus callosum is a recognized characteristic of multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe a new reliable method for measuring corpus callosum atrophy and correlate this with global cerebral atrophy measures. METHODS Whole brain 3T MRI was performed in 38 relapsing-remitting MS subjects and 21 healthy controls (HC). Brain global gray(More)
BACKGROUND The reliable and efficient measurement of spinal cord atrophy is of growing interest in monitoring disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS We compared T1- and T2-weighted MRI for measuring cervical spinal cord volume in 31 patients with MS and 18 age-matched controls (NC) from T1-weighted gradient recalled echo and T2-weighted(More)
BACKGROUND Whole brain atrophy is a putative outcome measure in monitoring relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). With the ongoing MRI transformation from 1.5T to 3T, there is an unmet need to calibrate this change. We evaluated brain parenchymal volumes (BPVs) from 1.5T versus 3T in MS and normal controls (NC). METHODS We studied MS [n = 26, age(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the initial efficacy of a mailed screening and brief intervention to reduce at-risk drinking in persons aged 50 and older. DESIGN Pilot randomized controlled trial. SETTING University of California at Los Angeles Department of Medicine Community Offices and Primary Care Network. PARTICIPANTS Individuals aged 50 and older who(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly affects occupational function. We investigated the link between brain MRI and employment status. Patients with MS (n = 100) completed a Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) (general health version) survey measuring employment status, absenteeism, presenteeism, and overall work and daily activity impairment.(More)
Assess the sensitivity of the Magnetic Resonance Disease Severity Scale (MRDSS), based on cerebral lesions and atrophy, for treatment monitoring of glatiramer acetate (GA) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). This retrospective non-randomized pilot study included patients who started daily GA [n = 23, age (median, range) 41 (26.2, 53.1) years,(More)
OBJECTIVE Compare T1 spin-echo (T1SE) and T1 gradient-echo (T1GE) sequences in detecting hypointense brain lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). BACKGROUND Chronic hypointense lesions on T1SE MRI scans are a surrogate of severe demyelination and axonal loss in MS. The role of T1GE images in the detection of such lesions has not been clarified. (More)