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The expression of membrane drug transport systems in the central nervous system plays an important role in the brain disposition and efficacy of many pharmacological agents used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as neoplasia, epilepsy, and HIV-associated dementia. Of particular interest is P-glycoprotein, a membrane-associated,(More)
Erythroid progenitors differentiate in erythroblastic islands, bone marrow niches composed of erythroblasts surrounding a central macrophage. Evidence suggests that within islands adhesive interactions regulate erythropoiesis and apoptosis. We are exploring whether erythroid intercellular adhesion molecule 4 (ICAM-4), an immunoglobulin superfamily member,(More)
Until recently, the blood-brain barrier was viewed as a static lipid membrane barrier. Physical attributes of the cerebral endothelial cells such as the presence of tight junctions, paucity of vesicles or caveolae, and high electrical resistance were believed to be the primary components that provide the membrane selectivity of the blood-brain barrier to a(More)
Protein 4.1R, a multifunctional structural protein, acts as an adaptor in mature red cell membrane skeletons linking spectrin-actin complexes to plasma membrane-associated proteins. In nucleated cells protein 4.1 is not associated exclusively with plasma membrane but is also detected at several important subcellular locations crucial for cell division. To(More)
Intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4), a newly characterized adhesion molecule, is expressed early in human erythropoiesis and functions as a ligand for binding alpha4beta1 and alphaV integrin-expressing cells. Within the bone marrow, erythroblasts surround central macrophages forming erythroblastic islands. Evidence suggests that these islands are(More)
Multifunctional structural proteins belonging to the 4.1 family are components of nuclei, spindles, and centrosomes in vertebrate cells. Here we report that 4.1 is critical for spindle assembly and the formation of centrosome-nucleated and motor-dependent self-organized microtubule asters in metaphase-arrested Xenopus egg extracts. Immunodepletion of 4.1(More)
Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, gram-positive organism that is the causative agent of the disease anthrax. Recognition of Bacillus anthracis by the host innate immune system likely plays a key protective role following infection. In the present study, we examined the role of TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 in the response to B. anthracis. Heat-killed Bacillus(More)
Purpose. Membrane-bound efflux transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), may limit the brain entry and distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors and be in part responsible for HIV-1-associated dementia treatment failure. The purpose of this study was to characterize the transport properties of saquinavir and indinavir in a brain microvessel endothelial(More)
The availability of relevant and useful animal models is critical for progress in the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics. The infection of rabbits and non-human primates with fully virulent Bacillus anthracis spores provides two excellent models of anthrax disease. However, the high cost of procuring and housing these animals and the(More)
Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium. The inhalational form of anthrax is the most severe and is associated with rapid progression of the disease and the outcome is frequently fatal. Transfer from the respiratory epithelium to regional lymph nodes appears to be an essential early step in the(More)