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Why dopamine-containing neurons of the brain's substantia nigra pars compacta die in Parkinson's disease has been an enduring mystery. Our studies suggest that the unusual reliance of these neurons on L-type Ca(v)1.3 Ca2+ channels to drive their maintained, rhythmic pacemaking renders them vulnerable to stressors thought to contribute to disease(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder whose etiology is not understood. This disease occurs both sporadically and through inheritance of single genes, although the familial types are rare. Over the past decade or so, experimental and clinical data suggest that PD could be a multifactorial, neurodegenerative disease that(More)
It is possible either permanently or transiently to deplete the rat striatum of dopamine. Following such depletions, striatal neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) or dopamine appear. The presence of dopamine-producing neurons in the striatum has relevance for the treatment of Parkinson's disease,(More)
Our knowledge of the organization of the nucleus accumbens has been greatly advanced in the last two decades, but only now are we beginning to understand the complex neural circuitry that underlies the mix of behaviors attributed to this nucleus. Superimposed on the neurochemically defined territories of the shell and core are four or more conduits for(More)
The neurochemical division of the rodent nucleus accumbens into shell and core is now a widely accepted concept. However, such divisions in the primate nucleus accumbens have yet to be fully clarified and described. In the present study, the forebrains of three primates--marmoset, rhesus monkey, and human--and a Wistar rat, were immunoreacted with(More)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is widely used to induce an animal model of Parkinsonism. The conventional mouse model, which usually involves acute or subacute injections of MPTP, results in a significant but reversible loss of dopaminergic functions. We have developed an alternative mouse model, in which co-administration of MPTP with(More)
Blockade of monoamine transporters by cocaine should not necessarily lead to certain observed consequences of cocaine administration, including increased firing of ventral mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons and accompanying impulse-stimulated release of DA in the forebrain and cortex. Accordingly, we hypothesize that the dopaminergic-activating effect of(More)
The distribution of dopamine-containing perikarya and fibres in the central nervous system of the eel, Anguilla anguilla, was determined by using a specific dopamine antiserum. Telencephalic dopamine-immunoreactive somata are located in the external cell layer of the olfactory bulb and throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the subpallium; immunoreactive(More)
Drug seeking and the vulnerability to relapse occur when individuals are exposed to an environment with sensory cues in which drug taking has occurred. Memory formation is thought to require plasticity in synaptic circuits, and so we examined whether the memory for a drug-paired environment correlates with changes in the synaptic circuits of the basolateral(More)
The mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body (LB) formation, a pathological hallmark of PD, are incompletely understood; however, mitochondrial dysfunction is likely to be at least partially responsible. To study the processes that might be related to nigral neurodegeneration and LB formation, we employed nonbiased quantitative(More)