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With the objective of monitoring the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs)in South America, population-based surveillance studies were performed in seven countries. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell, filter paper, fresh blood, and cocultivation samples were collected from HIV-positive patients from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru,(More)
BACKGROUND Acute respiratory illnesses and influenza-like illnesses (ILI) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the public health importance, little is known about the etiology of these acute respiratory illnesses in many regions of South America. In 2006, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MoH) and the US Naval Medical(More)
The epidemiology of HTLV-I infection in female prostitutes was studied in a survey of 395 prostitutes from Callao, Peru (the port city of Lima), 72 prostitutes from Iquitos, Peru (another port city on the Amazon River), and 510 prenatal clinic patients from Lima. Prostitutes reported a mean of 8.8 years (range, 1-39 years) of active prostitution and a mean(More)
An HIV seroprevalence and molecular study was conducted among 935 subjects: 723 female commercial sex workers, 92 men who have sex with men and 120 HIV-positive volunteers. The reported injection drug use rates were 0.7% in female commercial sex workers and 3% in men who have sex with men. Sexually transmitted infections were reported in 265 (37%) of the(More)
HIV cross-sectional studies were conducted among high-risk populations in 9 countries of South America. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening and Western blot confirmatory testing were performed, and env heteroduplex mobility assay genotyping and DNA sequencing were performed on a subset of HIV-positive subjects. HIV prevalences were highest among men(More)
HIV subtypes B, F, and BF recombinants have been previously reported in South America. This report describes the presence of HIV-1 subtype C infection in the countries of Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay dating back to at least 1999. Surveillance for uncommon non-B/non-F subtype viruses circulating in South America has been conducted in samples obtained(More)
BACKGROUND Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We performed a prospective(More)
The circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium vivax consists of a central repeat region flanked by highly conserved non-repeat regions. Serum samples from 33 individuals with naturally acquired infections of P. vivax were tested for antibodies to four antigens representing the vivax CS protein. Three recombinant proteins containing different overlapping(More)
BACKGROUND Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in(More)
BACKGROUND Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) constitute a major health problem worldwide where routine screening of blood or blood products is improperly done, and where non-medical injecting medications and/or drug use are prevalent. Prevalence and risk factors vary by geographic location and by the specific TTI (including HIV-1, HBV, HCV and(More)