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A complex array of chaperones and enzymes reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to assist the folding and assembly of and the disulfide bond formation in nascent secretory proteins. Here we characterize a novel human putative ER co-chaperone (ERdj5) containing domains resembling DnaJ, protein-disulfide isomerase, and thioredoxin domains. Homologs of(More)
The cancer stem cell hypothesis posits that tumors are derived from a single cancer-initiating cell with stem cell properties. The task of identifying and characterizing a single cancer-initiating cell with stem cell properties has proven technically difficult because of the scarcity of the cancer stem cells in the tissue of origin and the lack of specific(More)
Human Ero1alpha is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein responsible for protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) oxidation. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying its function, we generated a panel of cysteine replacement mutants and analyzed their capability of: 1) complementing a temperature-sensitive yeast Ero1 mutant, 2) favoring oxidative(More)
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer (BC), as strong evidence has been found that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. This review presents the state of the art on the role of miRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of BC. Based on the(More)
Formation of disulfide bonds, an essential step for the maturation and exit of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is controlled by specific ER-resident enzymes. A pivotal element in this process is Ero1alpha, an oxidoreductin that lacks known ER retention motifs. Here we show that ERp44 mediates Ero1alpha ER localization through the(More)
In eukaryotes, members of the Ero1 family control oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Yeast Ero1p is tightly associated with the ER membrane, despite cleavage of the leader peptide, the only hydrophobic sequence that could mediate lipid insertion. In contrast, human Ero1-Lalpha and a yeast mutant (Ero1pDeltaC) lacking the 127(More)
Disulfide bonds are formed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by sequential interchange reactions: Ero1alpha and Ero1beta transfer oxidative equivalents to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which in turn oxidizes cargo proteins. Neither Ero1alpha nor Ero1beta contains known ER localization motif(s), raising the question of how they are retained in this(More)
Recent data suggest that mammary carcinogenesis may be driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs) derived from mutated adult stem cells, which have acquired aberrant cell self-renewal or by progenitor cells that have acquired the capacity for cell self-renewal. Spontaneous mammary cancers in cats and dogs are important models for the understanding of human breast(More)
Defining the aggressiveness and growth rate of a malignant cell population is a key step in the clinical approach to treating tumor disease. The correct grading of breast cancer (BC) is a fundamental part in determining the appropriate treatment. Biological variables can make it difficult to elucidate the mechanisms underlying BC development. To identify(More)