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Population genetic statistics from multilocus genotype data inform our understanding of the patterns of genetic variation and their implications for evolutionary studies, generally, and human disease studies in particular. In any given population one can estimate haplotype frequencies, identify deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, test for balancing(More)
Software to analyze multi-locus genotype data for entire populations is useful for estimating haplotype frequencies, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and patterns of linkage disequilibrium. These statistical results are important to both those interested in human genome variation and disease predisposition as well as evolutionary genetics. As part(More)
Six years of data from the Purina Research Center were summarized to quantitate relationships among DMI, DIM, BW, and 4% FCM. Cows were fed individually and housed in a tie-stall barn from parturition to 21 wk postpartum. Best overall equation predicting DMI was kg DMI = .008037 x kg BW + .3134 x kg 4% FCM + .2286 x DIM - .002176 x (DIM)2 + .00000705 x(More)
Genomic screening to map disease loci by association requires automation, pooling of DNA samples, and 3,000-6,000 highly polymorphic, evenly spaced microsatellite markers. Case-control samples can be used in an initial screen, followed by family-based data to confirm marker associations. Association mapping is relevant to genetic studies of complex diseases(More)
The expected disequilibrium between two loci with k alleles at one locus and l alleles at the other is given for a sample of size n drawn from a population under neutrality equilibrium. Three different measures of disequilibrium with 95% intervals are tabulated for combinations of n, k, l and 4Nc, where N is the effective population size and c is the amount(More)
The autoimmune disease process leading to childhood-onset type 1 diabetes appears to start in infancy, and decisions on treatment to prevent initiation of autoimmunity will need to be based on genetic susceptibility alone. We set out to quantify the absolute risk associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 class II genotypes and to develop(More)
The allelic and haplotypic diversity of the HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C loci was investigated in 852 subjects from five sub-Saharan populations from Kenya (Nandi and Luo), Mali (Dogon), Uganda, and Zambia. Distributions of genotypes at all loci and in all populations fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. There was not a single allele predominant at any(More)
An underlying complex genetic susceptibility exists in multiple sclerosis (MS), and an association with the HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype has been repeatedly demonstrated in high-risk (northern European) populations. It is unknown whether the effect is explained by the HLA-DRB1 or the HLA-DQB1 gene within the susceptibility haplotype, which are in(More)
HLA data from the A and B loci for 22 populations were compared with the neutrality expectations from Ewens' sampling theory. In 25 of 44 cases, there was significantly less homozygosity than expected. Although a number of factors can affect homozygosity in this manner, upon close examination only symmetrical balancing selection appears to be consistent(More)
Analysis of the highly polymorphic beta1 domains of the HLA class II molecules encoded by the DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci reveals contrasting levels of diversity at the allele and amino acid site levels. Statistics of allele frequency distributions, based on Watterson's homozygosity statistic F, reveal distinct evolutionary patterns for these loci in(More)