Glenna B. Mercado

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Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal arteriovenous communication in the cavernous sinus. Direct CCF results from a tear in the intracavernous carotid artery. Typically, it has a high flow and usually presents with oculo-orbital venous congestive features such as exophthalmos, chemosis, and sometimes oculomotor or abducens cranial nerve palsy.(More)
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