Glenn W Walters

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Inactivation of the pathogenic Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 and a non-pathogenic E. coli strain isolated from dairy cattle manure was evaluated with batch tests at 50 and 55 degrees C in biosolids from a thermophilic anaerobic digester treating the manure. Using differential-selective plating on sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar to quantify E. coli, the(More)
There is considerable interest in the United States in production of Class A (low pathogen content) biosolids from the treatment of municipal wastewater sludge. Current requirements imposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency make it difficult for thermophilic anaerobic digestion, in its simplest process configurations, to achieve Class A status. In(More)
Thermophilic-anaerobic digestion in a single-stage, mixed, continuous-flow reactor is not approved in the United States as a process capable of producing Class A biosolids for land application. This study was designed to evaluate the inactivation of pathogens and indicator organisms in such a reactor followed by batch treatment in a smaller reactor. The(More)
Ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 260 nm were evaluated to determine the inactivation kinetics of bacteria, viruses, and spores compared to low-pressure (LP) UV irradiation. Test microbes were Escherichia coli B, a non-enveloped virus (MS-2), and a bacterial spore (Bacillus atrophaeus). For LP UV, 4-log10 reduction doses were: E.(More)
Conventional in vitro exposure methods for cultured human lung cells rely on prior suspension of particles in a liquid medium; these have limitations for exposure intensity and may modify the particle composition. Here electrostatic precipitation was used as an effective method for such in vitro exposures. An obsolete electrostatic aerosol sampler was(More)
There is increasing interest in the United States in producing biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment that meet the criteria for Class A designation established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Class A biosolids are intended to be free of pathogens and also must meet requirements for reduction of the vector-attraction potential associated(More)
Exposure of cultured cells to particulate matter air pollution is usually accomplished by collecting particles on a solid matrix, extracting the particles from the matrix, suspending them in liquid, and applying the suspension to cells grown on plastic and submerged in medium. The objective of this work was to develop a more physiologically and(More)
The hydrophobic pesticide 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT) is a persistent contaminant in soils and sediments, although it has long been known to be biodegradable under anaerobic conditions. Addition of a nonionic surfactant was evaluated as a means of enhancing the solubilization, potential bioavailability, and anaerobic(More)
There is growing interest in studying the toxicity and health risk of exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures found in ambient air, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving towards setting standards for these types of mixtures. Additionally, the Health Effects Institute's strategic plan aims to develop and apply next-generation(More)
Laser nephelometry was used to measure specific antibody to lamb's quarters antigen. It was demonstrated that the same specific antibody detected by indirect hemagglutination could readily be measured by this sensitive technique. Current investigations are being conducted to determine if this system might be validated for the measurement of blocking(More)
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