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The pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever in adult rats from 3 inbred strains (LEW, MAXX, WF) was investigated. WF rats all died by day 2 postinoculation with viral tissue titers reaching 9 log10 PFU/g. LEW and MAXX rats were resistant to liver disease, but fatal necrotising encephalitis developed in 16 and 44% of the rats, respectively. Detection of serum(More)
The current human whole-cell vaccine is ineffective against pneumonic plague caused by typical F1 capsule positive (F1+) strains of Yersinia pestis. The authors found this vaccine to also be ineffective against F1-negative (F1-) Y. pestis strains, which have been isolated from a human case and from rodents. For these reasons, the authors developed a(More)
As a first step in formulating an improved plague vaccine, we developed a simple purification strategy that produced high yields of pure cell-associated and culture supernatant-derived fraction 1 capsular antigen (F1) from both avirulent Yersinia pestis C092 (Pgm- Lcr-) and an Escherichia coli F1-producing recombinant strain. Cell-associated F1 was(More)
The keyboards of multiple-user (student) and single-user (staff) computers located on a university campus were sampled to assess microbial contamination. The average number of microorganisms present on multiple-user computer keyboards was significantly greater than on single-user keyboards, and the number of keyboards harboring potential pathogens was also(More)
The purified recombinant V antigen from Yersinia pestis, expressed in Escherichia coli and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, an adjuvant approved for human use, was used to immunize outbred Hsd:ND4 mice subcutaneously. Immunization protected mice from lethal bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by CO92, a wild-type F1+ strain, or by the isogenic F1- strain(More)
The hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, was examined as a possible model for investigating the poorly defined pathogenesis of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus. Punta Toro virus (PTV) isolates from Eastern Panama were highly virulent for two outbred and five inbred hamster strains, while isolates from western Panama were of low virulence. The Adames(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a novel nanocarriers with interesting physical and chemical properties. Here we investigate the ability of amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-NH3(+)) to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) in vitro using a co-culture BBB model comprising primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBEC) and primary rat(More)
Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is the association of congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) and melanotic lesions in the central nervous system. The original post-mortem description in 1861 was of progressive proliferative lep-tomeningeal melanocytosis [17], and until the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), NCM was thought of as universally fatal. With(More)
The morphogenesis of the hepatotropic phlebovirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been examined by immuno-electron microscopy in primary hepatocyte cultures derived from genetically susceptible and resistant rat strains. RVFV replicates in both cell types with growth kinetics comparable with those seen in other permissive cells. However, in contrast to(More)
Intellectual disability and cerebellar atrophy occur together in a large number of genetic conditions and are frequently associated with microcephaly and/or epilepsy. Here we report the identification of causal mutations in Sorting Nexin 14 (SNX14) found in seven affected individuals from three unrelated consanguineous families who presented with(More)