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Mucosal epithelial cells are uniquely equipped to maintain barrier function even under adverse conditions. Previous studies have implicated hypoxia in mucosal tissue damage resulting from both acute and chronic inflammation. Given the importance of the transcriptional regulator hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) for adaptive hypoxia responses, we(More)
Food allergy is an important public health problem that affects children and adults and may be increasing in prevalence. Despite the risk of severe allergic reactions and even death, there is no current treatment for food allergy: the disease can only be managed by allergen avoidance or treatment of symptoms. The diagnosis and management of food allergy(More)
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition of increasing recognition and prevalence. In 2007, a consensus recommendation provided clinical and histopathologic guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of EoE; however, only a minority of physicians use the 2007 guidelines, which require fulfillment of both histologic and clinical(More)
Mucosal organs such as the intestine are supported by a rich and complex underlying vasculature. For this reason, the intestine, and particularly barrier-protective epithelial cells, are susceptible to damage related to diminished blood flow and concomitant tissue hypoxia. We sought to identify compensatory mechanisms that protect epithelial barrier during(More)
Epithelial cells which line mucosal surfaces are the first line of defense against bacterial invasion and infection. Recent studies have also indicated that epithelial cells contribute significantly to the orchestration of ongoing inflammatory processes. Here, we demonstrate that human epithelial cells express bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein(More)
Esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are increasingly recognized and prevalent conditions, which now represent common clinical problems encountered by gastroenterologists, pathologists, and allergists. The study of EoE has become a dynamic field with an evolving understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Although(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are common and clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. Gastrointestinal disorders and associated symptoms are commonly reported in individuals with ASDs, but key issues such as the prevalence and best treatment of these conditions are incompletely understood. A central difficulty in recognizing and(More)
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can benefit from adaptation of general pediatric guidelines for the diagnostic evaluation of abdominal pain, chronic constipation, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. These guidelines help health care providers determine when gastrointestinal symptoms are self-limited and when evaluation beyond a thorough(More)
Limited oxygen delivery to tissues (hypoxia) is common in a variety of disease states. A number of parallels exist between hypoxia and acute inflammation, including the observation that both influence vascular permeability. As such, we compared the functional influence of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) on normoxic and posthypoxic endothelial(More)
Limited oxygen delivery to tissues (hypoxia) is common in a variety of disease states. A number of parallels exist between hypoxia and acute inflammation, including the observation that both influence vascular permeability. As such, we compared the functional influence of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) on normoxic and posthypoxic endothelial(More)