Glenn S Takimoto

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When antagonist-occupied steroid receptors have agonist-like effects, the clinical consequences are grave. We present evidence that human progesterone B-receptors (hPRB) when occupied by progesterone antagonists, inappropriately activate transcription by an unusual mechanism that does not require the canonical progesterone response element (PRE). In HeLa(More)
Steroid receptor antagonists, such as the antiestrogen tamoxifen or the antiprogestin RU486, can have inappropriate agonist-like effects in tissues and tumors. To explain this paradox we postulated that coactivators are inadvertently brought to the promoters of DNA-bound, antagonist-occupied receptors. The human (h) progesterone receptor (PR) hinge-hormone(More)
Because progesterone antagonists are growth inhibitors, they are in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of breast cancer. However, when cellular cAMP levels are elevated, some antiprogestins inappropriately activate transcription. We have proposed that hormone "resistance" may result from such unintended stimulation of breast cancer by antagonists.(More)
Human progesterone target tissues contain two progesterone receptors: B-receptors (hPRB), which are 933 amino acids in length, and A-receptors (hPRA), which lack the N-terminal 164 amino acids. The two isoforms differ functionally when they are occupied by agonists or antagonists. We postulated that the unique 164-amino acid, B-upstream segment (BUS) is in(More)
Progesterone has biphasic effects on proliferation of breast cancer cells; it stimulates growth in the first cell cycle, then arrests cells at G1/S of the second cycle accompanied by up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. We now show that progesterone regulates transcription of the p21 promoter by an unusual mechanism. This promoter(More)
The two, nearly identical, isoforms of human progesterone receptors (PR), PR-B and -A, share activation functions (AF) 1 and 2, yet they possess markedly different transcriptional profiles, with PR-B being much stronger transactivators. Their differences map to a unique AF3 in the B-upstream segment (BUS), at the far N terminus of PR-B, which is missing in(More)
The nuclear receptors belong to a superfamily of proteins, many of which are ligand-regulated, that bind to specific DNA sequences and control specific gene transcription. Recent data show that, in addition to contacting the basal transcription machinery directly, nuclear receptors inhibit or enhance transcription by recruiting an array of coactivator or(More)
When steroid hormone antagonists have inappropriate agonist effects, the clinical consequences are grave. Progesterone antagonists bind to two naturally occurring isoforms of human progesterone receptors (hPR), hPRB and the NH2-terminally truncated hPRA, and usually inhibit agonist-stimulated transcription. It is shown here that elevation of cAMP levels in(More)
Progesterone, through its nuclear receptors (PR), regulates the development and growth of breast cancers. PR also serve as markers of hormone dependence and prognosis in patients with this disease, and functional PR are required to mediate the antiproliferative effects of progestin therapies. We find that normal and malignant breast cells and tissues can(More)
Human progesterone receptors (hPRs) are phosphorylated at multiple serine residues, first in a basal step and then in a hormone-induced step. To determine whether hormone-induced phosphorylation precedes or follows the interaction of hPRs with DNA two strategies were used. (i) DNA binding was prevented or altered with site-specific mutants of the A form of(More)