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The development of addiction and vulnerability to relapse following withdrawal is proposed to be the result of neuroadaptive processes within the central nervous system that oppose the acute reinforcing actions of drugs of abuse. These changes lead to impairment in the mechanisms that mediate positive reinforcement and the emergence of affective changes(More)
BACKGROUND Animal models of alcohol dependence suggest that long-term alterations in brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, key mediators of the behavioral stress response, may be involved in the development and reinstatement of dependence on drugs of abuse. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of CRF in the regulation(More)
This report of the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting provides evidence linking stress during sobriety to craving that increases the risk for relapse. The initial presentation by Rajita Sinha summarized clinical evidence for the hypothesis that there is an increased sensitivity to stress-induced craving(More)
Recently, human urocortin II (hUcn II), a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family, was identified. The following experiments sought to compare the effects of this novel CRF-related peptide versus those of ovine CRF (oCRF) on locomotor activation and anxiety-related behavior, using the locomotor activity test and the elevated plus(More)
Kappa opioid agonists were at one time proposed as candidate pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction, mainly because of their ability to decrease dopamine neurotransmission and attenuate the behavioral effects of cocaine in laboratory animals. Recent studies, however, suggest that kappa agonists also may mimic and/or enhance some of the effects of cocaine(More)
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder, accompanied by alterations in psychological and physiological functioning, which reaches an addictive state where an individual demonstrates uncontrollable compulsive alcohol drinking and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Withdrawal is one of the defining characteristics of dependence,(More)
Murine urocortin 3 (mUcn 3), a member of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) peptide family, was recently identified. Of known agonists, this neuropeptide displays the highest degree of selectivity in binding to the CRF(2) receptor. These experiments sought to test the hypothesis that CRF(2) receptors have a role in modulating stress by examining(More)
Two corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor families have been identified (CRF1 and CRF2). Whereas anxiogenic-like roles for the CRF1 receptor have been identified, behavioral functions of the CRF2 receptor remain obscure. Urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a CRF-related peptide that selectively binds CRF2 receptors, was recently identified and recognized for its(More)
RATIONALE Despite prolonged abstinence, prior drug dependence is accompanied by lasting changes in physiology, psychosocial functioning and vulnerability to relapse. One proposed mechanism for these alterations is dysregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurocircuitry. OBJECTIVES To determine regional brain CRF content and HPA-axis activity(More)
BACKGROUND Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been hypothesized to be one of the main regulators of the stress response observed during alcohol withdrawal. The CRF receptor subtypes seem to have a differential role in the regulation of stress-related behavior. Given the behavioral characterization of these receptors, the objective of the following(More)