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The development of addiction and vulnerability to relapse following withdrawal is proposed to be the result of neuroadaptive processes within the central nervous system that oppose the acute reinforcing actions of drugs of abuse. These changes lead to impairment in the mechanisms that mediate positive reinforcement and the emergence of affective changes(More)
BACKGROUND Animal models of alcohol dependence suggest that long-term alterations in brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, key mediators of the behavioral stress response, may be involved in the development and reinstatement of dependence on drugs of abuse. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of CRF in the regulation(More)
RATIONALE Despite prolonged abstinence, prior drug dependence is accompanied by lasting changes in physiology, psychosocial functioning and vulnerability to relapse. One proposed mechanism for these alterations is dysregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurocircuitry. OBJECTIVES To determine regional brain CRF content and HPA-axis activity(More)
BACKGROUND Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been hypothesized to be one of the main regulators of the stress response observed during alcohol withdrawal. The CRF receptor subtypes seem to have a differential role in the regulation of stress-related behavior. Given the behavioral characterization of these receptors, the objective of the following(More)
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder, accompanied by alterations in psychological and physiological functioning, which reaches an addictive state where an individual demonstrates uncontrollable compulsive alcohol drinking and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Withdrawal is one of the defining characteristics of dependence,(More)
Recently, human urocortin II (hUcn II), a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family, was identified. The following experiments sought to compare the effects of this novel CRF-related peptide versus those of ovine CRF (oCRF) on locomotor activation and anxiety-related behavior, using the locomotor activity test and the elevated plus(More)
Murine urocortin 3 (mUcn 3), a member of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) peptide family, was recently identified. Of known agonists, this neuropeptide displays the highest degree of selectivity in binding to the CRF(2) receptor. These experiments sought to test the hypothesis that CRF(2) receptors have a role in modulating stress by examining(More)
Kappa opioid agonists were at one time proposed as candidate pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction, mainly because of their ability to decrease dopamine neurotransmission and attenuate the behavioral effects of cocaine in laboratory animals. Recent studies, however, suggest that kappa agonists also may mimic and/or enhance some of the effects of cocaine(More)
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system mediates stress responses. Extrahypothalamic CRF1 receptor activation has anxiogenic-like properties, but anxiety-related functions of CRF2 receptors remain unclear. The present study determined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of a CRF2 agonist, urocortin 3, on behavior of male Wistar(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been hypothesized to modulate consummatory behavior through the Type 2 CRF (CRF(2)) receptor. However, behavioral functions subserved by the CRF(2) receptor remain poorly understood. Recently, human urocortin II (hUcn II), a selective CRF(2) receptor agonist, was identified. To study the effects of this neuropeptide(More)