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Parents will increase their fitness by varying the sex ratio of their progeny in response to differences in the costs and benefits of producing sons and daughters. Sex differences in energy requirements or viability during early growth, differences in the relative fitness of male and female offspring, and competition or cooperation between siblings or(More)
Scots pine populations contain individuals with widely differing amounts and composition of monoterpenes and exist as one of two chemotypes: with or without delta3-carene. We investigated the significance for ecological studies of two types of variation in monoterpenes: (1) the inherent variability in the concentration of monoterpenes or their relative(More)
The abundance of the intestinal helminth Trichostrongylus retortaeformis in adult mountain hares (Lepus timidus) from a moor in northeastern Scotland was assessed monthly. Weight and fatness of each hare was measured and the reproductive output of females was estimated by sectioning ovaries. Abundance of the parasite was lower in December and January than(More)
This study investigated changes in carbon-based plant secondary metabolite concentrations in the needles of Pinus sylvestris saplings, in response to long-term elevation of atmospheric CO2, at two rates of nutrient supply. Experimental trees were grown for 3 years in eight open-top chambers (OTCs), four of which were maintained at ambient (∼350 μmol mol-1)(More)
Herbivores with an intermediate feeding strategy either vary their diet between a grazing (bulk roughage feeders) or browsing (concentrate selectors) strategy on a seasonal basis or select a mixed diet at any one time. The underlying ecological causes of the seasonal dietary shift in a small non-ruminant intermediate feeder - the mountain or arctic hare(More)
Plant genetic and ontogenetic variation can significantly impact dependent fungal and arthropod communities. However, little is known of the relative importance of these extended genetic and ontogenetic effects within a species. Using a common garden trial, we compared the dependent arthropod and fungal community on 222 progeny from two highly(More)
  • Glenn Iason
  • 2005
Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) have many ecological functions, but have long been considered as defences against pathogens or herbivores (vertebrate or invertebrate), reducing the likelihood and extent of attack. However, mammalian herbivores ingest many foods containing PSM and use both behavioural methods and physiological strategies to limit their(More)
Mountain hares were collected each month between April 1984 and March 1985 and their intestines examined for helminths. 26 rabbits were also collected between July and December 1984 and examined for gastro-intestinal helminths. Three nematode and two cestode species were found in the hares while only two nematode and one cestode species were found in the(More)
A central issue in our understanding of the evolution of the diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is whether or not compounds are functional, conferring an advantage to the plant, or non-functional. We examine the hypothesis that the diversity of monoterpene PSMs within a plant species (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) may be explained by different(More)
We review the evidence for behavioral avoidance of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) and identify how, and the circumstances under which it occurs. Behavioral strategies of avoidance of PSM can only be fully understood in relation to the underlying physiological processes or constraints. There is considerable evidence that animals learn to avoid PSMs on(More)