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A long-term goal of numerous research projects is to identify biomarkers for in vitro systems predicting toxicity in vivo. Often, transcriptomics data are used to identify candidates for further evaluation. However, a systematic directory summarizing key features of chemically influenced genes in human hepatocytes is not yet available. To bridge this gap,(More)
This is the 52nd report of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The main objective of ECVAM, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences, and that reduce,(More)
Modern approaches to drug discovery have dramatically increased the speed and quantity of compounds that are made and tested for potential potency. The task of collecting, organizing, and assimilating this information is a major bottleneck in the discovery of new drugs. We have developed LeadScope a novel, interactive computer program for visualizing,(More)
Drug-induced block of the cardiac hERG (human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene) potassium channel delays cardiac repolarization and increases the risk of Torsade de Pointes (TdP), a potentially lethal arrhythmia. A positive hERG assay has been embraced by regulators as a non-clinical predictor of TdP despite a discordance of about 30%. To test whether assaying(More)
Relating chemical structure to biological activity is not a new endeavor, however, the ability to do this on large datasets is just emerging. To cope with the enormous amounts of data being generated, an assortment of computational methods has been developed in the fields of chemoinformatics and computational toxicology. Many of the molecular descriptors(More)
SPROUT is a computer program for constrained structure generation. It is designed to generate molecules for a range of applications in molecular recognition. The program uses a number of approximations that enable a wide variety of diverse structures to be generated. Practical use of the program is demonstrated in two examples. The first demonstrates the(More)
Each year large pharmaceutical companies produce massive amounts of primary screening data for lead discovery. To make better use of the vast amount of information in pharmaceutical databases, companies have begun to scrutinize the lead generation stage to ensure that more and better qualified lead series enter the downstream optimization and development(More)
Toxicological research faces the challenge of integrating knowledge from diverse fields and novel technological developments generally in the biological and medical sciences. We discuss herein the fact that the multiple facets of cancer research, including discovery related to mechanisms, treatment and diagnosis, overlap many up and coming interest areas in(More)
The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives(More)