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How do firms select a supplier for an innovative component? Three literatures speak to this question. Transaction cost economics focuses on the value of internalization, the literature on inter-firm relationships on the value of past relationships, and the firm capabilities literature on the value of superior capabilities. Choosing a supplier means choosing(More)
M odularity in product design and flexible supply chains is increasingly common in buyer–supplier relationships. Although the benefits of supply chain flexibility and component modularity for end-product manufacturers are accepted, little is known about their impact on suppliers. We advance the literature on mod-ularity by exploring how three aspects of a(More)
The research program of the Center for Economic Studies (CES) produces a wide range of economic analyses to improve the statistical programs of the U.S. Census Bureau. Many of these analyses take the form of CES research papers. The papers have not undergone the review accorded Census Bureau publications and no endorsement should be inferred. Any opinions(More)
The tacit assumption that increased product modularity is associated with advantageous increases in organizational modularity underlies much of the literature on modularity. Previous empirical investigations of this assumption, few in number, have faced numerous confounding factors and generated conflicting results. I build a causal model for the(More)
We review William Starbuck and Moshe Farjoun's Organization at the Limit: Lessons from the Columbia Disaster, a book that provides a unique look at a rare empirical phenomenon: the total failure of a high−risk, high−reward organization. The National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) is a large, elaborate, and mature organization, which operates risky(More)
Almost every business network exists in the context of a larger organizational population, but research has not produced a clear understanding of how similar firms outside a focal network influence the performance of network members. The existing literature offers two conflicting arguments and sets of results. One approach views the direct and indirect ties(More)
This paper identifies firm−level competitive activity, one of the key units of analysis in competitive dynamics research, as the fundamental mediation between corporate governance and firm−level financial performance. By employing the " Motivation−Capability " logic embodied in the competitive dynamics research literature, we reclassify various practices of(More)