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OBJECTIVES To compare the fit of various factor solutions for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD; Zigmond & Snaith, 1983). DESIGN A cross-sectional postal survey was used to collect the data from community-based participants in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. METHODS The HAD scale, a 14-item self-administered measure of anxiety and(More)
It has been argued that perceptions of familial tendencies to disease are common and important in decisions about health-related behaviours. Indeed, it has been suggested that the increased 'geneticization' of society may lead to an increased fatalism about health, which could undermine initiatives aimed at reducing coronary-prone behaviour. To date, much(More)
This paper is based on baseline data from a survey of 1042 fifty-five year olds living in the Central Clydeside Conurbation, who constitute the eldest cohort of the 'West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study'--a longitudinal study of health and everyday life. The relationship between marital status and a number of measures of health and illness is explored. The(More)
Large magnitude cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress have been implicated in the development and expression of cardiovascular disease. Given that cardiovascular disease varies as a function of demographic variables such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES), it is surprising that there are few substantive data on the eVects of such(More)
There have been very few reports addressing levels and distribution of commonly used PNI measures in large community samples. In this study, we report such data for secretion rates of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), as determined from saliva samples taken from 1971 subjects interviewed as part of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 survey of health in West(More)
We conducted an unbiased metagenomics survey using plasma from patients with chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and patients without liver disease (control). RNA and DNA libraries were sequenced from plasma filtrates enriched in viral particles to catalog virus populations. Hepatitis(More)
It is frequently observed in contemporary industrialised societies that although women live longer than men, they are sicker than men in that they report higher rates of morbidity, disability and health care use. One common element of the explanation for women's higher rates of morbidity is that there are gender differences in the way that symptoms are(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate relations between health (using a range of measures) and housing tenure or car access; and to test the hypothesis that observed relations between these asset based measures and health are simply because they are markers for income or self esteem. DESIGN Analysis of data from second wave of data collection of West of Scotland(More)
Data confirming the existence of social inequalities in health have continued to accumulate since the Black Report reported class inequalities across a broad range of causes of mortality, with an increasing emphasis on indicators of morbidity and current health status. Although evidence of continuing inequalities mounts, elucidation of underlying mechanisms(More)