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Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) causes severe foodborne illness (listeriosis). Previous molecular subtyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), were critical in detecting outbreaks that led to food safety improvements and declining incidence, but PFGE provides limited genetic resolution. A multiagency collaboration began performing(More)
It is estimated that at least 70% of human illnesses due to non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in the United States are caused by strains from the top six serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). Procedures for isolating STEC from food products often use plating media that include antimicrobial supplements at concentrations(More)
Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, particularly those caused by the "big six" or "top six" non-O157 serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) can result in severe illness and complications. Because of their significant public health impact and the notable prevalence of STEC in cattle, methods for detection of the big(More)
Microbial communities associated with agricultural animals are important for animal health, food safety, and public health. Here we combine high-throughput sequencing (HTS), quantitative-PCR assays, and network analysis to profile the poultry-associated microbiome and important pathogens at various stages of commercial poultry production from the farm to(More)
The use of antibiotic growth promotants in poultry rearing is a public health concern due to antibiotic resistance in bacteria and the harborage of resistance genes. Lupulone, a hop β-acid from Humulus lupulus, has been considered as a potential feed additive growth promotant. Here, the effect of lupulone was evaluated for its effect on the microbiota of(More)
Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that plays a substantial role in non-foodborne human, animal, and avian diseases as well as human foodborne disease. Previously discovered C. perfringens bacteriophage lytic enzyme amino acid sequences were utilized to identify putative prophage lysins or autolysins by BLAST(More)
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Positive identification of E. coli O157:H7 is made using biochemical tests and specific antisera or latex agglutination reagents for the O157 and H7 antigens. However, under certain conditions, some E. coli O157:H7 isolates can appear to be(More)
Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis XbaI patterns of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) isolates (n = 156) found in ground beef sampled from U.S. processing plants and retail stores during 2001 to 2006 were summarized and compared with XbaI patterns from human STEC O157 isolates (n = 14,591) in the national PulseNet E. coli database. Four(More)
Latex agglutination assays utilizing polyclonal antibodies were developed for the top six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups. Rabbit antisera were affinity purified through protein A/G columns, and the isolated immunoglobulins (IgGs) were covalently immobilized onto polystyrene latex particles. The resulting latex-IgG complex(More)
Increasingly, molecular methods have become important in identification and confirmation of bacteria at the species level. Rapid molecular methods provide sensitivity and specificity while reducing cost and resources. The primary goal of this study was to develop a real-time PCR assay for identification of Escherichia coli from an agar plate. GadE (gadE)(More)