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We report here several unusual features of inactivation of the rat Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel, expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The voltage dependence of inactivation was U-shaped, with maximum inactivation near 0 mV. During a maintained depolarization, development of inactivation was slow and only weakly voltage dependent (tau = 4 s at 0 mV;(More)
Ventricular fibrillation causes more than 300,000 sudden deaths each year in the USA alone. In approximately 5-12% of these cases, there are no demonstrable cardiac or non-cardiac causes to account for the episode, which is therefore classified as idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF). A distinct group of IVF patients has been found to present with a(More)
We previously concluded that the Kv2.1 K(+) channel inactivates preferentially from partially activated closed states. We report here that the Kv3.1 channel also exhibits two key features of this inactivation mechanism: a U-shaped voltage dependence measured at 10 s and stronger inactivation with repetitive pulses than with a single long depolarization.(More)
Single Na channel currents were compared in ventricular myocytes and cortical neurons of neonatal rats using the gigaseal patch-clamp method to determine whether tissue-specific differences in gating can be detected at the single-channel level. Single-channel currents were recorded in cell-attached and excised membrane patches at test potentials of -70 to(More)
The effects of TsIV-5, a toxin isolated from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus, on whole-cell and single-channel Na currents were determined in N18 neuroblastoma cells. In whole-cell records at a test potential of -10 mV, external application of 500 nM TsIV-5 slowed inactivation 20-fold and increased peak current by about one-third without changing(More)
The structure of the carboxyl half of the pore-forming region of Kv2.1 was studied by replacing each of 15 consecutive residues between positions 383 and 369 with a reporter cysteine residue. Extracellular application of charged, membrane-impermeant methanethiosulfonates irreversibly modified currents at four cysteine-substituted positions, K382, Y380,(More)
4-Aminopyridine (4AP) blocks the intracellular mouth of voltage-gated K+ channels. We identified critical regions for 4AP binding with chimeric channels in which segments of a low affinity clone (Kv2.1, IC50 = 18 mM) were replaced with those of a high affinity clone (Kv3.1, IC50 = 0.1 mM). 4AP sensitivity was not transferred with the S5-S6 linker (pore or P(More)
We have determined the effects of coexpression of Kv2.1 with electrically silent Kv5.1 or Kv6.1 alpha-subunits in Xenopus oocytes on channel gating. Kv2.1/5.1 selectively accelerated the rate ofinactivation at intermediate potentials (-30 to 0 mV), without affecting the rate at strong depolarization (0 to +40 mV), and markedly accelerated the rate of(More)
Heteromultimer formation between Kv potassium channel subfamilies with the production of a novel current is reported for the first time. Protein-protein interactions between Kv2.1 and electrically silent Kv6.1 alpha-subunits were detected using two microelectrode voltage clamp and yeast two-hybrid measurements. Amino terminal portions of Kv6.1 were unable(More)
Na+ channel inactivation, a critical determinant of refractoriness, differs in cardiomyocytes and neurons. In rat brain type IIa (rB2a) Na+ channels, a critical residue in the cytoplasmic linker between domains III and IV regulates fast inactivation such that a Phe-->Gln substitution (F1489Q) inhibits inactivation by at least 85%. Since this residue is(More)