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High-resolution records of past climatic changes during the last glacial have revealed a number of abrupt changes on time scales of decades or less. Climate models suggest that the deep ocean circulation has the potential to act as a pacemaker of such changes. Based on results from ice cores from both polar regions, and the reference to a common time scale(More)
Emotional behavior is in part heritable and often disrupted in psychopathology. Identification of specific genetic variants that drive this heritability may provide important new insight into molecular and neurobiological mechanisms involved in emotionality. Our results demonstrate that the presynaptic vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) Thr136Ile(More)
C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice exhibit disparate behavior when tested for voluntary morphine intake in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm with B6 mice consuming 10 times more drug than D2 mice. Previous genetic mapping studies identified a locus, Mop2, on the proximal part of chromosome 10 that explained over half of the genetic variance in this mouse(More)
Vocalizations of Senegal and South African lesser bushbabies were compared with respect to their acoustic properties analysed from spectrograms and oscillograms. Homologous calls could be identified within comparable functional categories. Considerable similarities were revealed in most of the noisy vocalizations associated with aggressive, defensive or(More)
Nicotine addiction (NA) is a common and devastating disease, such that the annual number of deaths (world-wide) from tobacco-related diseases will double from 5 million in the year 2000 to 10 million in 2020. Nicotine is the only substance in tobacco which animals and humans will self-administer. NA, as a lifetime diagnosis, has been assessed in various(More)
C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice differ in behaviors related to substance abuse, including voluntary morphine consumption and preference in a two-bottle choice paradigm. Two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for morphine consumption and preference exist between these strains on chromosomes (Chrs.) 6 and 10 when the two-bottle choice involves morphine in(More)
While the physiological mechanisms that contribute to the development of alcohol dependence remain unclear, a number of recent studies have indicated a role for the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR 1) in modulating the response of the central nervous system to ethanol. Based on these data, the present study aims to identify associations(More)
BACKGROUND The common CHRNA5 mis-sense coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs16969968:G>A (D398N) has repeatedly been shown to confer risk for heavy smoking in individuals who carry the 'A' allele (encoding the 398N amino acid). The mis-sense SNP has a minor allele frequency of ∼40% in European-Americans, but only ∼7% in African-Americans(More)
OBJECTIVES The prodynorphin gene (PDYN) promoter has a repeat polymorphism that is functionally important in association with substance abuse. We examined this polymorphism for association in our sample of 168 opioid-dependent patients and 122 ethnically and geographically matched controls. METHODS Patients were selected from university-affiliated(More)
The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mediates reward and dependence associated with opioids and other commonly abused substances. Variability in the MOR gene, OPRM1, may influence risk for opioid dependence. In this study, associations between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), dbSNP rs540825 and dbSNP rs562859, and opioid dependence were investigated. The(More)