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Iron is essential for the normal functioning of cells but since it is also capable of generating toxic reactive oxygen species, the metabolism of iron is tightly regulated. The present article advances the view that astrocytes are largely responsible for distributing iron in the brain. Capillary endothelial cells are separated from the neuropil by the(More)
Astrocytes are considered to play an important role in iron homeostasis of the brain, yet the mechanisms involved in the uptake of iron into astrocytes remain elusive. To investigate the uptake of iron into astrocytes, we have applied ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) to rat astrocyte-rich primary cultures. These cultures express the mRNAs of two membrane-bound(More)
Brains from patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) show a disruption in the metabolism of iron, such that there is an accumulation of iron in senile plaques, and an altered distribution of iron transport and storage proteins. One of the earliest events in AD is the generation of oxidative stress, which may be related to the generation of free radicals by the(More)
Neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and hemorrhagic stroke are associated with increased levels of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) in the brain, which can promote Fenton chemistry. While all types of brain cells can take up NTBI, their efficiency of accumulation and capacity to withstand iron-mediated toxicity(More)
Research into Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been guided by the view that deposits of fibrillar amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) are neurotoxic and are largely responsible for the neurodegeneration that accompanies the disease. This 'amyloid hypothesis' has claimed support from a wide range of molecular, genetic and animal studies. We critically review these(More)
Iron that is not bound to storage proteins can catalyse the generation of toxic hydroxyl radicals. Iron can be released from brain storage proteins by hypoxic conditions, such as those that accompany stroke, and the situation can be compounded by iron released from hemoglobin in extravasated blood cells. Despite the neurotoxicity of iron, there is little(More)
Following hemorrhagic stroke, red blood cells lyse and release neurotoxic hemin into the interstitial space. The present study investigates whether neurons can accumulate and metabolize hemin. We demonstrate that cultured neurons express the heme carrier protein 1 (HCP1), and that this transporter appears to contribute to the time- and(More)
Hemin, the degradation product of hemoglobin, contributes to the neurodegeneration that occurs in the weeks following a hemorrhagic stroke. The breakdown of hemin in cells releases redox-active iron that can facilitate the production of toxic hydroxyl radicals. The present study used 3-week old primary cultures of mouse astrocytes to compare the toxicity of(More)
A new therapeutic approach is being developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This approach involves the deliberate induction of an autoimmune response to amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide, the constituent of neuritic plaques that is thought to cause the neurodegeneration and dementia in AD. If this approach is to be effective, antibodies must be(More)