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Mechanoreceptive hair cells are extremely sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics, including neomycin. Hair cell survival was assessed in larval wild-type zebrafish lateral line neuromasts 4 h after initial exposure to a range of neomycin concentrations for 1 h. Each of the lateral line neuromasts was scored in live fish for the presence or absence of hair(More)
Developmental differences in hair cell susceptibility to aminoglycoside-induced cell death has been observed in multiple species. Increased sensitivity to aminoglycosides has been temporally correlated with the onset of mechanotransduction-dependent activity. We have used in vivo fluorescent vital dye markers to further investigate the determinants of(More)
To explore the role of the interleukin (IL)-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) in neuronal apoptosis, we designed a mutant ICE gene (C285G) that acts as a dominant negative ICE inhibitor. Microinjection of the mutant ICE gene into embryonal chicken dorsal root ganglial neurons inhibits trophic factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis. Transgenic mice expressing the(More)
Removal of the cochlea or pharmacological blockade of eighth nerve activity in young postnatal chickens results in rapid transneuronal cell death and atrophy in neurons of n. magnocellularis. The present experiments were designed to examine the influence of afferent input on astrocyte structure in n. magnocellularis. Young chickens were subjected to(More)
The complex anatomy of the mammalian cochlea is most readily understood by representation in three-dimensions. However, the cochlea is often sectioned to minimize the effects of its anatomic complexity and optical properties on image acquisition by light microscopy. We have found that optical aberrations present in the decalcified cochlea can be greatly(More)
Loss of the mechanosensory hair cells in the auditory and vestibular organs leads to hearing and balance deficits. To investigate initial, in vivo events in aminoglycoside-induced hair cell damage, we examined hair cells from the lateral line of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The mechanosensory lateral line is located externally on the animal and therefore(More)
Granzyme B (GraB) is required for the efficient activation of apoptosis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. We find that GraB and perforin induce severe mitochondrial perturbation as evidenced by the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and suppression of transmembrane potential (Deltapsi). The earliest mitochondrial event was the(More)
Skeletal myoblasts form grafts of mature muscle in injured hearts, and these grafts contract when exogenously stimulated. It is not known, however, whether cardiac muscle can form electromechanical junctions with skeletal muscle and induce its synchronous contraction. Here, we report that undifferentiated rat skeletal myoblasts expressed N-cadherin and(More)
Traditional methods for anatomical and morphometric studies of cochlear tissues have relied upon either microdissection of the organ of Corti or the generation of serial sections of the cochlea. Such methods are time-consuming, disruptive to three-dimensional relationships and often restrict sampling to very limited numbers of cells. We have found that(More)
Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is the most potent inducer of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. This induction is uniquely mediated by three DNA elements in the promoter region of class II MHC genes. One of these DNA elements, Y, contains an inverted CCAAT box. Previously, we have screened a lambda gt11 library for Y-binding proteins and(More)