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In older children, measuring lung function is integral for understanding respiratory physiology and for clinical assessment. Pulmonary function tests for infants and children younger than American Thoracic Society Documents 1305 2 years are used as both research and clinical tools. The usefulness of these tests has benefited from approximately 15 years of(More)
PURPOSE This study investigated whether muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-induced cycling was associated with changes occurring in evoked electromyographic signals (eEMG, M-waves) in individuals with spinal cord injury. We also explored the effects of recovery intervals between exercise sessions on the relationship between eEMG(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of medially linking knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) on postural stability and sway during (1) quiet standing and (2) functional activities for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN A randomized, mixed design, with the factors being activity (quiet standing and two function-mimicking tasks), SCI (present or(More)
This paper introduces an 8-channel transcutaneous neuromuscular stimulator, called ExoStim, which was designed and developed to provide stimulation to the lower-limb muscles of spinal cord injured individuals. The intended purposes of the ExoStim were to act as a skin-surface precursor to an implantable neuromuscular stimulator for the specific tasks of(More)
The objective of this study was to explore relationships among constants used in musculo-skeletal models predicting torque generated about the knee by the quadriceps muscles. A model was developed and matched to data collected from individuals with spinal cord injury performing quadriceps contractions evoked using neuromuscular electrical stimulation. After(More)
A "proof of concept" prototype of a new device to link bilateral knee-ankle-foot orthoses, the Mooring Medial Linkage Orthosis (Moorong MLO), is presented. The device consists of an arcuate sliding link centred on the hip joints with rolling element bearings to minimise friction. A single repeated-measures case study is reported in which a woman with an(More)
BACKGROUND Although virus-induced wheezing is common in preschool-age children, optimal management remains elusive. We examined the efficacy and safety of preemptive treatment with high-dose fluticasone in reducing the severity of recurrent virus-induced wheezing in children. METHODS We randomly assigned 129 children who were 1 to 6 years of age to(More)
The purpose of this study was to verify the performance of recently developed body-worn sensor packs against 3D motion analysis of trunk and lower-limb movements. Five sensor packs, each consisting of rate gyroscope and two 2-D accelerometers controlled by a microprocessor were attached to the trunk, thighs, and shanks of an able bodied subject. A 6-camera(More)
Objectives. To investigate the different approaches in the field of functional electrical stimulation (FES) control of gait and address fundamental perquisites to enable FES walking systems to become safer, more practical, and therefore clinically efficacious. Design. Systematic review was conducted from electronic data bases up to March 2008. Studies with(More)
This study analysed external power output and physiologic responses in 5 individuals with paraplegia during 40 minutes of electrical stimulation leg cycle exercise. Cycling was performed on a motor-driven isokinetic ergometer that enabled precise determinations of power output. Electrical stimulation was increased to 120-140 mA within the first 5 minutes(More)