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The use of optimization techniques to predict individual muscle forces in redundant biomechanical systems implies the formulation of a criterion for load sharing between the muscles. In part I of this paper, the characteristics and performance of several linear and non-linear criteria reported in the literature have been compared for static-isometric knee(More)
P6new physiological criterion for muscular load sharing is developed. The criterion is based on the assumption that the endurance time of muscular contractions is maximized, hence muscular fatigue is minimized. The optimization problem is cast in the form of a linearly constrained, non-linear MINIMAX optimization. The new method predicts that: (1) there is(More)
Genetic toxicology data have traditionally been employed for qualitative, rather than quantitative evaluations of hazard. As a continuation of our earlier report that analyzed ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) dose-response data (Gollapudi et al., 2013), here we present analyses of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) and(More)
The spatial gross motion of the foot with respect to the shank is modelled as rotations about two fixed ankle axes: the upper ankle rotation axis (plantar flexion/dorsiflexion) and the subtalar rotation axis (inversion/eversion). The positions of the axes are determined by externally visible bony landmarks of the lower leg, and are measured for a living(More)
As is typical of stochastic-optimization problems, the multi-variate integration of the probability-density function is the most difficult task in the optimal allotment of tolerances. In this paper, a truncated Monte Carlo simulation and a genetic algorithm are used as analysis (i.e. multivariate-integration) and synthesis (i.e. optimization) tools,(More)
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