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1. The effect of sodium influx on anoxic damage was investigated in rat hippocampal slices. Previous experiments demonstrated that a concentration of tetrodotoxin which blocks neuronal transmission protects against anoxic damage. In this study we examined low concentrations of lidocaine (lignocaine; which do not block neuronal transmission), for their(More)
Intracellular recordings, ATP and cytosolic calcium measurements from CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slices were used to examine the mechanisms by which temperature alters hypoxic damage. Hypothermia (34 degrees C) preserved ATP (1.7 vs. 0.8 nM/mg) and improved electrophysiologic recovery of the CA1 neurons after hypoxia; 58% of the neurons(More)
We studied the effects of lidocaine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) on hypoxic changes in CA1 pyramidal neurons to examine the ionic basis of neuronal damage. Lidocaine (10 and 100 microM) and TTX (6 and 63 nM) delayed and attenuated the hypoxic depolarization and improved recovery of the resting and action potentials after 10 min of hypoxia. Lidocaine (10 and 100(More)
Since blockers of excitatory transmission have been shown to reduce anoxic and ischemic neuronal damage, augmentation of inhibitory transmission by agents such as midazolam might have a similar protective effect. Rat hippocampal slices were maintained in vitro and used to determine whether and by what mechanism midazolam improves recovery of evoked(More)
Brain tissue, maintained in vitro, was used to determine whether agents that block calcium entry into neurons can improve the recovery of evoked responses after anoxia. The hippocampus was dissected from a rat brain and sliced perpendicular to its long axis such that its main neuronal circuits remain functional. A pathway in the slice was stimulated(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Thiopental has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemic damage; however, it has undesirable side effects. We have examined how thiopental alters histological, physiological, and biochemical changes during and after hypoxia. These experiments should enable the discovery of agents that share some of the beneficial effects of(More)
The effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists, aminophosphonovaleric acid and MK-801, on irreversible transmission loss subsequent to anoxia was examined using the hippocampal slice preparation. A population spike was recorded from either the dentate granule cells or the CA1 pyramidal cells and the amplitude of this spike was compared before and 60 min(More)
The in vitro rat hippocampal slice was used to study the effect of tetrodotoxin, a sodium channel blocker, on anoxic damage. Tetrodotoxin improved recovery of the evoked population spike after anoxia and reduced the fall in adenosine 5'-triphosphate during anoxia. Electrophysiological responses to perforant pathway stimulation were recorded in the dentate(More)
The barbiturate anesthetic thiopental enhances recovery of the evoked population spike recorded from rat hippocampal slices after short periods of anoxia. Thiopental reduces changes in sodium, potassium and calcium but enhances the fall in ATP levels during anoxia. The postsynaptic population spike recorded from the CA1 pyramidal cell region of the slices(More)
Galanin is a small neuropeptide that mediates its effects via three receptor isoforms: galanin receptor-1, galanin receptor-2 and galanin receptor-3 (Gal-R1, Gal-R2 and Gal-R3). Galanin is thought to be an important intermediate in signalling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and has been widely detected in the ovine hypothalamus. The expression of(More)