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Patients with inefficient CD4+ T-cell recovery on virogically suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy constitute a major clinical hurdle given the threat of HIV/AIDS disease progression. We show heightened circulating lipopolysaccharide associated with plasma enterobacterial DNA and highly activated Ki67+CD4+CD8+ in 24 immunologic-nonresponders(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated the significance of microbial translocation measured on average 3 years after HIV seroconversion in driving disease progression in HIV untreated patients with high CD4(+) cell count. DESIGN We included ICONA patients with documented last HIV-negative and first HIV-positive test, at least one plasma sample stored while(More)
Up to 30% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who are receiving long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy do not exhibit a marked increase in the CD4(+) T cell count, despite achieving complete suppression of the HIV load. These patients are referred to as "immunological nonresponders." When treating immunological nonresponders, the(More)
In advanced HIV infection, the homeostatic balance between gastrointestinal indigenous bacteria and gut immunity fails and microbes are able to overcome the intestinal barrier and gain the systemic circulation. Because microbial translocation is not fully controlled by antiviral therapy and is associated with inefficient CD4+ reconstitution, we investigated(More)
OBJECTIVES Microbial translocation (MT) through the gut accounts for immune activation and CD4+ loss in HIV and may influence HCV disease progression in HIV/HCV co-infection. We asked whether increased MT and immune activation may hamper anti-HCV response in HIV/HCV patients. METHODS 98 HIV/HCV patients who received pegylated-alpha-interferon(More)
HIV-infected patients display an increased and early incidence of osteopenia/osteoporosis. We investigated whether bone metabolism disorders in HIV-infected patients are related to immune hyperactivation and premature immune senescence. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): low BMD (LBMD) was defined as T-score(More)
BACKGROUND The bone marrow (BM) cytokine milieu might substantially affect T-lymphocyte homeostasis in HIV-positive individuals. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a bone marrow-derived cytokine regulating T-cell homeostasis through a CD4+-driven feedback loop. CD4+ T-lymphopenia is associated with increased free IL-7 levels and reduced IL-7R expression/function,(More)
Inefficient immune recovery under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represents a clinical issue. Twenty-seven of 121 HIV+ naïve patients became immunological nonresponders (INRs) and 55 introduced therapy late [very late treated (VLT)]. INR displayed older age, lower CD4(+) cell counts, down-regulation of CD127(+)CD4(+) and higher apoptotic(More)
BACKGROUND We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between the interleukin-7 (IL-7)/IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) regulatory system and parameters of T-cell homeostasis in HIV-infected long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) as compared with patients with disease progression. METHODS The possibility of a correlation between T-cell homeostatic parameters and(More)