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Recent data on the epidemiology of the common mycotoxigenic species of Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium in infected or colonized plants, and in stored or processed plant products from the Mediterranean area are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the toxigenicity of the causal fungal species and the natural occurrence of well known mycotoxins(More)
Several Fusarium species occurring worldwide on maize as causal agents of ear rot, are capable of producing mycotoxins in infected kernels, some of which have a notable impact on human and animal health. The main groups of Fusarium toxins commonly found are: trichothecenes, zearalenones, fumonisins, and moniliformin. In addition, beauvericin and(More)
Black Aspergilli, and in particular Aspergillus carbonarius, are the main causes of contamination of grapes and their by-products by ochratoxin A. A PCR-based method was developed to detect DNA of A. carbonarius and A. japonicus. Two pairs of primers (CARBO1/2 and JAPO1/2) designed from the calmodulin gene, produced PCR products of 371 and 583 bp for A.(More)
Two years of field sampling aimed to establish the predominance and association among the fungal pathogens causing Fusarium ear blight (FEB) in four European countries (Hungary, Ireland, Italy and the UK). A PCR-based method was used to detect four Fusarium species and two varieties of Microdochium nivale present in the samples. The prevalence of FEB(More)
Within-field variability in the Fusarium head blight (FHB) and its associated mycotoxins was studied in four European countries. At each of 14 sites, each FHB pathogen and associated mycotoxins were quantified in 16 quadrat samples at harvest. Overall, the incidence of quadrat samples with detectable and quantifiable pathogen DNA was significantly lower in(More)
ABSTRACT Over 4 years, the environmental conditions and the causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of wheat were determined in field sites in four European countries: Hungary, Ireland, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods were used to detect each species causing FHB and quantify its DNA (as a measurement of(More)
Aspergillus niger is a significant component of the fungal community on grapes. The mycotoxin fumonisin B2 (FB2) was recently detected in grape must and wine as well as in cultures of some A. niger strains isolated from grapes and raisins. This study examined 48 strains of Aspergillus section Nigri for the presence of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene fum8 in(More)
Ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin and a possible human carcinogen that can contaminate various agricultural products, including grapes and wine. The capabilities of species other than Aspergillus carbonarius within Aspergillus section Nigri to produce ochratoxin A from grapes are uncertain, since strain identification is based primarily on morphological(More)
Fusarium species from agricultural crops have been well studied with respect to toxin production and genetic diversity, while similar studies of communities from nonagricultural plants are much more limited. We examined 72 Fusarium isolates from a native North American tallgrass prairie and found that Gibberella intermedia (Fusarium proliferatum),(More)
Fusarium verticillioides is considered to be the main source of fumonisins, a group of toxins that contaminate commodities and result in chronic and acute diseases affecting humans and animals. The detection and control of this species is crucial to prevent fumonisins from entering the food chain. The objective of the present research was to develop a(More)