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ABSTRACT Over 4 years, the environmental conditions and the causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of wheat were determined in field sites in four European countries: Hungary, Ireland, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods were used to detect each species causing FHB and quantify its DNA (as a measurement of(More)
Aspergillus niger is a significant component of the fungal community on grapes. The mycotoxin fumonisin B2 (FB2) was recently detected in grape must and wine as well as in cultures of some A. niger strains isolated from grapes and raisins. This study examined 48 strains of Aspergillus section Nigri for the presence of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene fum8 in(More)
The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is a group of mycotoxigenic fungi that are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat worldwide. The distribution, frequency of occurrence, and genetic diversity of FGSC species in cereal crops in South America is not well understood compared to some regions of Asia, Europe and North America.(More)
DNA phylogenetic comparisons have shown that morphology-based species recognition often underestimates fungal diversity. Therefore, the need for accurate DNA sequence data, tied to both correct taxonomic names and clearly annotated specimen data, has never been greater. Furthermore, the growing number of molecular ecology and microbiome projects using(More)
Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium oxysporum are the causal agents of a destructive disease of asparagus called Fusarium crown and root rot. F. proliferatum from asparagus produces fumonisin B1 and B2, which have been detected as natural contaminants in infected asparagus plants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed for the rapid(More)
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is composed of a dihydroisocoumarin ring linked to phenylalanine, and its biosynthetic pathway has not yet been completely elucidated. Most of the knowledge regarding the genetic and enzymatic aspects of OTA biosynthesis has been elucidated in Penicillium species. In(More)
Fusarium trichothecenes are a group of fungal toxic metabolites whose synthesis requires the action of gene products from three different genetic loci. We evaluated, both chemically and by PCR assays, 55 isolates of Fusarium culmorum from eight European countries and different host plants for their ability to produce trichothecenes. Specific sequences in(More)
Dried vine fruits may be heavily colonized by Aspergillus species. The molecular biodiversity of an Aspergillus population (234 strains) isolated from dried vine fruit samples of worldwide origin were analyzed by investigating four housekeeping gene loci (calmodulin, β-tubulin, elongation factor 1-α, RPB2). Aspergillus Sect. Nigri was dominant and the(More)
Ochratoxin A is a potent nephrotoxin and a possible human carcinogen that can contaminate various agricultural products, including grapes and wine. The capabilities of species other than Aspergillus carbonarius within Aspergillus section Nigri to produce ochratoxin A from grapes are uncertain, since strain identification is based primarily on morphological(More)
Fusarium verticillioides is considered to be the main source of fumonisins, a group of toxins that contaminate commodities and result in chronic and acute diseases affecting humans and animals. The detection and control of this species is crucial to prevent fumonisins from entering the food chain. The objective of the present research was to develop a(More)