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In this paper, we address the problem of computing a consensus translation given the outputs from a set of Machine Translation (MT) systems. The translations from the MT systems are aligned with a multiple string alignment algorithm and the consensus translation is then computed. We describe the multiple string alignment algorithm and the consensus MT(More)
Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) for conversational systems (SDS) aims at extracting concept and their relations from spontaneous speech. Previous approaches to SLU have modeled concept relations as stochastic semantic networks ranging from generative approach to discriminative. As spoken dialog systems complexity increases, SLU needs to perform(More)
Semantics deals with the organization of meanings and the relations between sensory signs or symbols and what they denote or mean. Computational semantics performs a conceptualization of the world using computational processes for composing a meaning representation structure from available signs and their features present, for example, in words and(More)
We are interested in the problem of adaptive learning in the context of automatic speech recognition (ASR). In this paper, we propose an active learning algorithm for ASR. Automatic speech recognition systems are trained using human supervision to provide transcriptions of speech utterances. The goal of Active Learning is to minimize the human supervision(More)
Stochastic language models are widely used in spoken language understanding to recognize and interpret the speech signal: the speech samples are decoded into word transcriptions by means of acoustic and syntactic models and then interpreted according to a semantic model. Both for speech recognition and understanding, search algorithms use stochastic models(More)
A coherently related group of sentences may be referred to as a discourse. In this paper we address the problem of parsing coherence relations as defined in the Penn Discourse Tree Bank (PDTB). A good model for discourse structure analysis needs to account both for local dependencies at the token-level and for global dependencies and statistics. We present(More)
This paper describes the AT&T WATSON real-time speech recog-nizer, the product of several decades of research at AT&T. The rec-ognizer handles a wide range of vocabulary sizes and is based on continuous-density hidden Markov models for acoustic modeling and finite state networks for language modeling. The recognition network is optimized for efficient(More)
This paper gives an overview of the research and implementation challenges we encountered in building an end-to-end natural language processing based watermarking system. With natural language watermarking, we mean embedding the watermark into a text document, using the natural language components as the carrier, in such a way that the modifications are(More)
In this paper, the speech understanding problem in the context of a spoken dialogue system is formalized in a maximum likelihood framework. Off-line adaptation of stochastic language models that interpolate dialogue state specific and general application-level language models is proposed. Word and dialogue-state n-grams are used for building categorical(More)