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Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown. In this work, we compared the fecal microbiota of European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso (BF),(More)
Endogenous tryptophan (Trp) metabolites have an important role in mammalian gut immune homeostasis, yet the potential contribution of Trp metabolites from resident microbiota has never been addressed experimentally. Here, we describe a metabolic pathway whereby Trp metabolites from the microbiota balance mucosal reactivity in mice. Switching from sugar to(More)
Chemical communication is widespread in insects and is crucial for colony organization in social species [1]. The environment and the signal requirements influence the chemical characteristics of the pheromone employed [1]. Highly volatile substances elicit rapid responses, as in alarm signalling, whereas low volatility compounds provide long-lasting cues(More)
Low molecular weight phosphotyrosine-protein phosphatase (LMW-PTP) shares no general sequence homology with other PTPs, although it has an active site sequence motif CXXXXXR and a reaction mechanism identical to those of all PTPs. The main function of this enzyme is the down-regulation of platelet-derived growth factor and insulin receptors. Both human(More)
Several studies of social insects have shown that epicuticular hydrocarbons are involved in recognition. The hypothesis is that the animals can use differences in chemical composition to acquire information about conspecific status (sex, colony, reproductive status or caste recognition). In this study, we searched for differences between the epicuticular(More)
This study examined the metabolic responses of the limpet Patella caerulea (L.) to anoxia and dehydration, attempting to tease apart the effect of these two stressful conditions, which are often not clearly distinguished in experiments. Specimens were exposed to: (a) oxygen-free sea water; (b) oxygen-saturated water (controls); (c) low-humidity air (55%(More)
The lipid transfer protein (LTP), Pru p 3, has been identified as the major allergen present in peach, and its sequence obtained by direct amino acid sequencing has been previously reported. However, several sequences, obtained from c-DNA and available in databases, show differences among them and from the originally proposed structure. In this paper, we(More)
A method for measuring globotriaosylceramide (Gb3, or GL3) levels in plasma and urine of humans affected by Anderson-Fabry disease has been developed. The analyses are performed using flow injection analysis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-MS/MS). The method is rapid, sensitive and hence suitable for high-throughput analyses,(More)
Use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), exemestane, letrozole and anastrozole, for breast cancer therapy is associated with severe pain symptoms, the underlying mechanism of which is unknown. The electrophilic nature of AIs suggests that they may target the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a major pathway in pain transmission and(More)
The role of brain cholesterol in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently a matter of debate. Experimental evidence suggests that reducing circulating and brain cholesterol protects against AD, however recent data indicate that low membrane cholesterol results in neurode-generation and that the cholesterol synthesis catalyst seladin-1 is down-regulated in(More)