Giuseppe Palladino

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BACKGROUND Adipocytes from mesenteric white adipose tissue amplify the inflammatory response and participate in inflammation-driven immune dysfunction in Crohn's disease by releasing proinflammatory mediators. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-α and -γ, pregnane x receptor (PXR), farnesoid x receptor (FXR) and liver x-receptor (LXR) are(More)
BACKGROUND High serum resistin has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population, Only sparse and conflicting results, limited to Asian individuals, have been reported, so far, in type 2 diabetes. We studied the role of serum resistin on coronary artery disease, major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in(More)
Bile acids are a family of steroid molecules generated in the liver by cholesterol oxidation. In addition to their role in nutrient absorption, bile acids are signaling molecules that exert genomic and non-genomic effects by activating TGR5 (M-BAR, GP-BAR1 or BG37) a G-protein-coupled receptor, and farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear hormone(More)
The pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) is master gene overseeing detoxification of wide number of xenobiotics and is critical for maintenance of intestinal integrity. The intestinal expression of genes involved in cellular detoxification is down-regulated in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Rifaximin is a non-absorbable antibiotic endowed with a PXR(More)
Inflammation-driven immune dysfunction supports the development of several chronic human disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Macrolides are effective antibiotics endowed with immunomodulatory effects. In this study we report the chemical synthesis and the pharmacological characterization of CSY0073, a non-antibiotic(More)
The farnesoid X receptor (FXRalpha) is a metabolic nuclear receptor and bile acid sensor expressed in the liver and intestine. Physiological studies have shown that FXRalpha exerts regulatory roles in bile acids, lipid and glucose homeostasis. FXR ligands of steroidal and non-steroidal structure have been described. Both ligand groups have shown limitations(More)
A dysregulated interaction between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and components of innate immunity is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel diseases. Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed oral antimicrobial agent increasingly used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases that has been demonstrated to act as a gut-specific ligand for the human nuclear(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) mortality, whose rate is increased in type 2 diabetes, is poorly understood. METHODS Three prospective cohorts were analyzed: 1) Gargano Heart Study (GHS; 359 patients, 58 events/1,934 person-years; py); 2) Health Professional Follow-up Study (HPFS; 833 men, 146 events/10,024 py); 3) Nurses' Health Study(More)
BACKGROUND Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related morbidity and mortality rates in patients treated with a combination of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have declined, significant metabolic/vascular adverse effects associated with the long term use of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) have emerged as a significant side effect. Here we(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Obesity-driven lipotoxicity is a risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) is a bile acids sensor and member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Activation of FXR lowers plasma triacylglycerols and glucose levels through a mechanism that involves both the repression of key regulatory genes in the liver and(More)