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A series of cyclic somatostatin analogs containing a lanthionine bridge have been subjected to studies of structure-activity relationships. A direct synthesis of the thioether bridged analog (1) of sandostatin (SMS 201,995) and several lanthionine hexa-, hepta-, and octapeptides was carried out by using the method of cyclization on an oxime resin (PCOR)(More)
Allostery is a fundamental mechanism of regulation in biology. The residues at the end points of long-range allosteric perturbations are commonly identified by the comparative analyses of structures and dynamics in apo and effector-bound states. However, the networks of interactions mediating the propagation of allosteric signals between the end points(More)
cAMP and the cAMP binding domain (CBD) constitute a ubiquitous regulatory switch that translates an extracellular signal into a biological response. The CBD contains alpha- and beta-subdomains with cAMP binding to a phosphate binding cassette (PBC) in the beta-sandwich. The major receptors for cAMP in mammalian cells are the regulatory subunits (R-subunits)(More)
One of the most significant hurdles to developing new chemical probes of biological systems and new drugs to treat disease is that of understanding the mechanism of action of small molecules discovered with cell-based small-molecule screening. Here we have assembled an ordered, high-expression clone set of all of the essential genes from Escherichia coli(More)
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels control neuronal and cardiac electrical rhythmicity. There are four homologous isoforms (HCN1-4) sharing a common multidomain architecture that includes an N-terminal transmembrane tetrameric ion channel followed by a cytoplasmic "C-linker," which connects a more distal cAMP-binding(More)
The cAMP signaling cascade is one of the most frequently targeted pathways for the development of pharmaceutics. A plethora of recent genetic and pharmacological studies suggest that exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (EPACs) are implicated in multiple pathologies. Selective EPAC inhibitors have been recently developed. One specific inhibitor,(More)
Mastoparan X (MPX: INWKGIAAMAKKLL-NH2) belongs to a family of ionophoric peptides found in wasp venom. Upon binding to the membrane, MPX increases the cell's permeability to cations leading to a disruption in the electrolyte balance and cell lysis. This process is thought to occur either through a membrane-thinning mechanism, where the peptide resides on(More)
A fragment corresponding to the putative membrane-associating domain of the prion protein (residues 110-136) was analyzed in phospholipid bicelles. Prion(110-136) associated with bicelles and exhibited a lipid- and pH-dependent conformational dimorphism between unstructured (pH 4.5) and alpha-helical (pH 7.5). Mutational analysis indicated that the charge(More)
Saturation transfer difference (STD) methods recently have been proposed to be a promising tool for self-recognition mapping at residue and atomic resolution in amyloidogenic peptides. Despite the significant potential of the STD approach for systems undergoing oligomer/monomer (O/M) equilibria, a systematic analysis of the possible artifacts arising in(More)
BACKGROUND Lactose repressor protein (Lac) controls the expression of the lactose metabolic genes in Escherichia coli by binding to an operator sequence in the promoter of the lac operon. Binding of inducer molecules to the Lac core domain induces changes in tertiary structure that are propagated to the DNA-binding domain through the connecting hinge(More)