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Nutritional deprivation suppresses immune function. The cloning of the obese gene and identification of its protein product leptin has provided fundamental insight into the hypothalamic regulation of body weight. Circulating levels of this adipocyte-derived hormone are proportional to fat mass but maybe lowered rapidly by fasting or increased by(More)
The wide range of phenotypic abnormalities seen in the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse and their reversibility by leptin administration provide compelling evidence for the existence of multiple physiological functions of this hormone in rodents. In contrast, information regarding the roles of this hormone in humans is limited. Three morbidly obese children,(More)
Thymic atrophy is a prominent feature of malnutrition. Forty-eight hours' starvation of normal mice reduced the total thymocyte count to 13% of that observed in freely fed controls, predominantly because of a diminution in the cortical CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocyte subpopulation. Prevention of the fasting-induced fall in the level of the adipocyte-derived hormone(More)
BACKGROUND A single family has been described in which obesity results from a mutation in the leptin-receptor gene (LEPR), but the prevalence of such mutations in severe, early-onset obesity has not been systematically examined. METHODS We sequenced LEPR in 300 subjects with hyperphagia and severe early-onset obesity, including 90 probands from(More)
We report here that leptin can act as a negative signal for the proliferation of human naturally occurring Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells. Freshly isolated T(reg) cells produced leptin and expressed high amounts of leptin receptor (ObR). In vitro neutralization with leptin monoclonal antibody (mAb), during anti-CD3 and anti-CD28(More)
Obesity affects about 44% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is one of the genes involved in the differentiation of adipose tissue. In an attempt to shed light on the high percentage of obesity in PCOS, we examined polymorphisms at exons 6 and 2 of the PPAR-gamma gene in 100 PCOS(More)
Several observations suggest the presence of an interaction between immune and the endocrine systems. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, that belongs structurally to the long-chain helical cytokine family such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-12 (IL-12), growth hormone (GH), and signals by a class I cytokine receptor (Ob-R). This cytokine(More)
Hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral endocrine axes, leading to infertility and bone loss, and usually is caused by chronic energy deficiency secondary to strenuous exercise and/or decreased food intake. Energy deficiency also leads to hypoleptinemia, which has been proposed, on the basis of(More)
OBJECTIVE Metreleptin has been efficacious in improving metabolic control in patients with lipodystrophy, but its efficacy has not been tested in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied the role of leptin in regulating the endocrine adaptation to long-term caloric deprivation and weight loss in obese diabetic subjects(More)
Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by implantation and growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. This disabling condition is considered one of the most frequent diseases in gynecology, affecting 15-20% of women in their reproductive life. Pelvic endometriosis, the most common form of the disease, is associated with(More)