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Habituation, i.e. the decremental response to repeated sensorial stimulation, is studied in humans through evoked potential stimulation. Mechanisms underlying habituation are not yet cleared, even if inhibitory circuits are supposed to play an important role. Light deprivation (LD) increases visual cortical excitability likely through down-regulation of(More)
OBJECTIVE We performed an electrophysiological study of swallowing (EPSS) in multiple sclerosis (MS) to describe oropharyngeal swallowing abnormalities and to analyze their correlations with dysphagia and with overall neurological impairment. METHODS Neurological examinations were quantified using the Kurtzke Functional Systems and the Expanded Disability(More)
Experimental studies emphasize the importance of homeostatic plasticity as a mean of stabilizing the properties of neural circuits. In the present work we combined two techniques able to produce short-term (5-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, rTMS) and long-term (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) effects on corticospinal(More)
Experimental evidence suggests impairment of inhibitory intracortical circuits in migraine, while not much is known about activity of facilitatory intracortical circuits. In the present work we evaluated the effects of high frequency-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (hf-rTMS) on the activity of facilitatory circuits of motor cortex in 18(More)
We explored the effects of valproate treatment on visual cortex excitability changes in migraine with aura patients. Abnormal cortical excitability has been suggested to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of migraine; in particular, it has been suggested a failure of inhibitory circuits in migraine with aura. Valproate acts as a central GABA(More)
OBJECTIVE An imbalance between activity of inhibitory and facilitatory intracortical circuits could play a central role in migraine etiology. We used input-output curves to achieve further information about intracortical excitability of motor cortex in migraine with aura. METHODS Input-output curves were measured in the right abductor pollicis brevis(More)
Evidence by functional imaging studies suggests the role of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in the inhibitory control of nociceptive transmission system. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to modulate pain response to capsaicin. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of DLPFC activation (through rTMS) on(More)
OBJECTIVE Sound-induced flash illusions depend on visual cortical excitability. In this study, we explored whether sound-induced flash illusions are perceived differently in migraine, a condition associated with pathologic cortical hyperexcitability. METHODS Sound-induced flash illusions were examined in 59 migraine patients (mean age = 32 ± 16 years; 36(More)
Several studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is able to enhance performances on verbal and visual working memory (WM) tasks. Available evidence points to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as a critical area in visual WM, but to date direct comparisons of the effects obtained by stimulating the left versus the(More)
Previous studies of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia found that the hallucinations were reduced by the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Here we describe a case of traumatic brain injury associated with continuous music hallucinations. An MRI scan showed a structural lesion of the right temporal pole and a PET scan indicated a(More)