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Recent research has indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the major factor involved in CNS functional declines in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and that antioxidants, e.g., vitamin E, may ameliorate or prevent these declines. Present studies examined whether long-term feeding of Fischer 344 rats, beginning(More)
Intracellular deposition of fibrillar aggregates of α-synuclein (αSyn) characterizes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. However, recent evidence indicates that small αSyn oligomeric aggregates that precede fibril formation may be the most neurotoxic species and can be found extracellularly. This new(More)
The Tg2576 transgenic mouse is an extensively characterized animal model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Similar to AD, these mice suffer from progressive decline in several forms of declarative memory including contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition (NOR). Recent work on this and other AD animal models suggests that initial cognitive(More)
Misfolded amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative illness characterized by cognitive deficits and neuronal loss. Transgenic mouse models of Abeta over-production indicate that Abeta-induced cognitive deficits occur in the absence of overt neuronal death, suggesting that while extensive(More)
The mechanism(s) underlying nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated rescue of neurons from apoptosis is poorly understood, although it is well established that the high-affinity NGF receptor (TrkA) plays a pivotal role in mediating NGF effects. The report that the low-affinity NGF receptor (p75NGFR) can induce apoptosis prompted us to analyze the role played by(More)
We have demonstrated that treatment of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) stimulates the synthesis of nerve growth factor receptors (NGFR). ALCAR has also been reported to prevent some age-related impairments of the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, ALCAR reduces the loss of NGFR in the hippocampus and basal(More)
Early cognitive impairment in Alzheimer Disease (AD) is thought to result from the dysfunctional effect of amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers targeting the synapses. Some individuals, however, escape cognitive decline despite the presence of the neuropathologic features of AD (Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles). We term this group Non-Demented with AD(More)
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a long pre-symptomatic phase followed by rapid and progressive clinical phase. Although rare in humans, the unconventional infectious nature of the disease raises the potential for an epidemic. Unfortunately, no treatment is currently available. The hallmark event in prion diseases is the(More)
Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2) is neuroprotective in numerous preclinical models of neurodegeneration. Here, we show that brain nmnat2 mRNA levels correlate positively with global cognitive function and negatively with AD pathology. In AD brains, NMNAT2 mRNA and protein levels are reduced. NMNAT2 shifts its solubility and(More)
Ischemic insults to the brain result in a time-dependent increase in neuronal death that is responsible for some of the functional deficits associated with stroke. Our working hypothesis is that ischemia results in a prompt depletion of high energy phosphate species resulting in decreased pH and glutathione levels in brain in a temporal and spatial pattern(More)