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Recent research has indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the major factor involved in CNS functional declines in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and that antioxidants, e.g., vitamin E, may ameliorate or prevent these declines. Present studies examined whether long-term feeding of Fischer 344 rats, beginning(More)
The Tg2576 transgenic mouse is an extensively characterized animal model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Similar to AD, these mice suffer from progressive decline in several forms of declarative memory including contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition (NOR). Recent work on this and other AD animal models suggests that initial cognitive(More)
Intracellular deposition of fibrillar aggregates of α-synuclein (αSyn) characterizes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. However, recent evidence indicates that small αSyn oligomeric aggregates that precede fibril formation may be the most neurotoxic species and can be found extracellularly. This new(More)
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a long pre-symptomatic phase followed by rapid and progressive clinical phase. Although rare in humans, the unconventional infectious nature of the disease raises the potential for an epidemic. Unfortunately, no treatment is currently available. The hallmark event in prion diseases is the(More)
Misfolded amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative illness characterized by cognitive deficits and neuronal loss. Transgenic mouse models of Abeta over-production indicate that Abeta-induced cognitive deficits occur in the absence of overt neuronal death, suggesting that while extensive(More)
We have demonstrated that treatment of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) stimulates the synthesis of nerve growth factor receptors (NGFR). ALCAR has also been reported to prevent some age-related impairments of the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, ALCAR reduces the loss of NGFR in the hippocampus and basal(More)
The mechanism(s) underlying nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated rescue of neurons from apoptosis is poorly understood, although it is well established that the high-affinity NGF receptor (TrkA) plays a pivotal role in mediating NGF effects. The report that the low-affinity NGF receptor (p75NGFR) can induce apoptosis prompted us to analyze the role played by(More)
Soluble oligomeric aggregates of the amyloid-beta (A beta) peptide are believed to be the most neurotoxic A beta species affecting the brain in Alzheimer disease (AD), a terminal neurodegenerative disorder involving severe cognitive decline underscored by initial synaptic dysfunction and later extensive neuronal death in the CNS. Recent evidence indicates(More)
Abnormal NFκB activation has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the signaling pathways governing NFκB regulation and function in the brain are poorly understood. We identify complement protein C3 as an astroglial target of NFκB and show that C3 release acts through neuronal C3aR to disrupt dendritic morphology and network function.(More)
Classic studies have established that muscle cells exert trophic actions on neurons of the developing peripheral nervous system through the production of neurotrophins. For this reason neurotrophins are also known as 'target-derived factors'. During differentiation, muscle cells also express some neurotrophin receptors, such as the low-affinity p75(More)