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The fluorescent calcium-sensitive indicators, such as the Calcium Green-1, allow one to detect small calcium transients at low indicator concentrations. The protocol reported here is a rapid and sensitive method that facilitates the measurement of intracellular free-calcium in cell suspensions. Using this assay, we were able to detect and quantify the(More)
It is widely believed that the inflammatory events mediated by microglial activation contribute to several neurodegenerative processes. Alzheimer's disease, for example, is characterized by an accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) in neuritic plaques that are infiltrated by reactive microglia and astrocytes. Although Abeta and its fragment 25-35(More)
The presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and FGF receptors was investigated in microglia cells derived from human fetal brain long-term cultures. Production of bFGF was suggested through the capability of microglial extracts to stimulate plasminogen activator (PA) synthesis in endothelial cells. The identity of PA-stimulating activity with bFGF(More)
The prion protein (PrP) and the amyloid beta (Abeta) precursor protein (APP) are two normal proteins constitutively synthesised in human brain. An altered form of PrP accumulates in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, while Abeta is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Synthetic fragments of both proteins, PrP106-126 and beta25-35 (beta25-35), have(More)
This study shows that human ramified microglial cells derived from fetal brain primary cultures, are able to produce nitric oxide (NO). In fact, stimulation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 microgram ml-1) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) (500 U ml-1) enhances nitrite release in cell supernatants, as determined by the Griess(More)
Expression of fibroblast-growth factor receptors (FGFRs) was studied in human fetal neurones, astrocytes and microglia in culture. Northern blot analysis showed that neurones and microglia expressed the mRNAs for FGFR-1, FGFR-2, FGFR-3, FGFR-4 at different levels, whereas astrocytes expressed only FGFR-1 and FGFR-4 mRNAs. Immunocytochemical localization of(More)
At the concentrations normally found in the brain extracellular space the glial-derived protein, S100B, protects neurons against neurotoxic agents by interacting with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). It is known that at relatively high concentrations S100B is neurotoxic causing neuronal death via excessive stimulation of RAGE. S100B(More)
The cytoskeletal proteins are phylogenetically well preserved in Vertebrates. However, unlike the case of Mammals, comparatively little is known about the immunocytochemical characterization of the intermediate filaments (IF) of the ependymal epithelium cells in the lower Vertebrates. The immunohistochemical response of the ependymal epithelium of the(More)
Hydra feeding response is a very primitive olfactory-like behavior present in a multicellular organism. We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the induction and control of hydra feeding response. Under basal conditions, hydra specimens produce detectable amounts of nitrite (NO2-), the breakdown product of NO. When hydra were incubated with reduced(More)