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BACKGROUND Few European studies have investigated the effects of long-term exposure to both fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 µm; PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on mortality. OBJECTIVES We studied the association of exposure to NO2, PM2.5, and traffic indicators on cause-specific mortality to evaluate the form of the concentration-response relationship.(More)
BACKGROUND Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations. METHODS This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects used data from 17 cohort studies based in(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollutants. METHODS We used data from 22 European(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS Data from 11 cohorts were collected, and occurrence of a first stroke was evaluated. Individual(More)
BACKGROUND Several countries in the world have not yet prohibited smoking in public places. Few studies have been conducted on the effects of smoking bans on cardiac health. We evaluated changes in the frequency of acute coronary events in Rome, Italy, after the introduction of legislation that banned smoking in all indoor public places in January 2005. (More)
Land Use Regression (LUR) models have been used increasingly for modeling small-scale spatial variation in air pollution concentrations and estimating individual exposure for participants of cohort studies. Within the ESCAPE project, concentrations of PM(2.5), PM(2.5) absorbance, PM(10), and PM(coarse) were measured in 20 European study areas at 20 sites(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). DESIGN Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. SETTING Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. (More)
BACKGROUND Short-term increases in particulate air pollution are linked with increased daily mortality and morbidity. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a determinant of overall health. We investigated whether social class is an effect modifier of the PM(10) (particulate matter with diameter <10 micron)-daily mortality association, and possible mechanisms for(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have investigated traffic-related air pollution as a risk factor for respiratory infections during early childhood. OBJECTIVES We aimed to investigate the association between air pollution and pneumonia, croup, and otitis media in 10 European birth cohorts--BAMSE (Sweden), GASPII (Italy), GINIplus and LISAplus (Germany), MAAS(More)
INTRODUCTION The Aphekom project aimed to provide new, clear, and meaningful information on the health effects of air pollution in Europe. Among others, it assessed the health and monetary benefits of reducing short and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and ozone in 25 European cities. METHOD Health impact assessments were performed using(More)