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Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist to the phencyclidine site of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Clinical findings point to a rapid onset of action for ketamine on the treatment of major depression. Considering that classic antidepressants may take long-lasting time to exhibit their main therapeutic effects, the present study aims to compare the(More)
Major depression is characterized for symptoms at the psychological, behavioral and physiological levels. The chronic mild stress model has been used as an animal model of depression. The consumption of sweet food, locomotor activity, body weight, lipid and protein oxidation levels and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the rat hippocampus,(More)
Psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia, affect a significant percentage of the world population. These disorders are associated with educational difficulties, decreased productivity and reduced quality of life, but their underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully elucidated.(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous studies have suggested that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Moreover, recent studies indicate that lithium and valproate exert neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. We studied the effects of the mood stabilizers lithium and valproate on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress in(More)
A growing body of evidence has pointed to the blockade of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression. The present study was aimed to evaluate behavioural and molecular effects of the chronic treatment with ketamine and imipramine in rats. To this aim, rats were 14 days treated(More)
A growing body of evidence has pointed to the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression. The present study investigated the possibility of synergistic interactions between antidepressant imipramine with the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Wistar rats were acutely(More)
There is an emerging body of data suggesting that mood disorders are associated with decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The present study aims to investigate the effects of the mood stabilizers lithium (Li) and valproate (VPT) in an animal model of bipolar disorder. In the first experiment (acute treatment), rats were administered(More)
Studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity, but little is known about the adaptations of antioxidant enzymes in the brain after amphetamine exposure. We studied the effects of acute and chronic amphetamine administration on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, in a rodent model of(More)
Major depression is a common, serious and recurrent disorder, characterized by symptoms at the psychological, behavioral and physiological levels. Recent studies have suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model has been used as an animal model of depression,(More)
An increasing debate exists about the potential of early exposure to methylphenidate to increase the risk for drug abuse. In addition, little is known about the neurobiological effects of early exposure to methylphenidate. This study was designed to investigate whether chronic treatment with methylphenidate induces behavioral sensitization to subsequent(More)