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The brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) shows a chronic inflammatory response characterized by activated glial cells and increased expression of cytokines and complement factors surrounding amyloid deposits. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a reduced risk for AD in patients using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), prompting(More)
Defects in dendritic spines are common to several forms of cognitive deficits, including mental retardation and Alzheimer disease. Because mutation of p21-activated kinase (PAK) can lead to mental retardation and because PAK-cofilin signaling is critical in dendritic spine morphogenesis and actin dynamics, we hypothesized that the PAK pathway is involved in(More)
Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is characterized by increased cytokines and activated microglia. Epidemiological studies suggest reduced AD risk associates with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas chronic ibuprofen suppressed inflammation and plaque-related pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic APPSw(More)
Learning and memory depend on dendritic spine actin assembly and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PFA). High DHA consumption is associated with reduced Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, yet mechanisms and therapeutic potential remain elusive. Here, we report that reduction of dietary n-3 PFA in an AD mouse(More)
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is one of the proteins that has been demonstrated to play a key role in degrading beta-amyloid (Abeta) monomer in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility of upregulating IDE as an approach to reduce Abeta. Little is known, however, about the cellular and molecular regulation of IDE protein. Because one of the main functions(More)
Epidemiological data indicate that low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA) intake is a readily manipulated dietary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies in animals confirm the deleterious effect of n-3 PFA depletion on cognition and on dendritic scaffold proteins. Here, we show that in transgenic mice overexpressing the human AD gene APPswe(More)
We reported earlier that the levels of Ca2+-dependent metalloproteinases are increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) specimens, relative to control specimens. Here we show that these enzymes are forms of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9 (EC3.4.24. 35) and are expressed in the human hippocampus. Affinity-purified antibodies to MMP-9 labeled pyramidal(More)
Although active and passive immunization against the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) of amyloid plaque-bearing transgenic mice markedly reduces amyloid plaque deposition and improves cognition, the mechanisms of neuroprotection and impact on toxic oligomer species are not understood. We demonstrate that compared to control IgG2b, passive immunization with(More)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are associated with a marked reduction in the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques containing the amyloid-beta protein (Abeta). Studies of the effects of NSAIDs upon the inflammatory response surrounding amyloid plaques and upon the(More)
Extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is critical for memory and tightly regulated by acute environmental stimuli. In Alzheimer disease transgenic models, active ERK is shown to first be increased, then later reduced, but whether these baseline changes reflect disruptions in ERK signaling is less clear. We investigated the influence of the(More)