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Excitatory amino acids (EAAs) and their receptors play a central role in the mechanisms underlying pain transmission. NMDA-receptor antagonists such as MK-801 produce antinociceptive effects against experimental models of chronic pain, but results in acute pain models are conflicting, perhaps due to increased glutamate availability induced by the(More)
A wide range of data in the literature suggests that environmental enrichment has beneficial effects on various cognitive parameters in rodents. However, the magnitude of these effects and their persistence after the cessation of enrichment vary markedly across studies, with the use of different enrichment protocols probably playing a significant role in(More)
We previously showed that JM-20, a novel 1,5-benzodiazepine fused to a dihydropyridine moiety, possessed an anxiolytic profile similar to diazepam and strong neuroprotective activity in different cell models relevant to cerebral ischemia. Here, we investigated whether JM-20 protects against ischemic neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo. The effects of JM-20(More)
Stroke is the major cause of death and the most frequent cause of disability in the adult population worldwide. Guanosine plays an important neuroprotective role in several cerebral ischemic models and is involved in the modulation of oxidative responses and glutamatergic parameters. Because the excessive reactive oxygen species produced during an ischemic(More)
Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS), induces an aggressive phenotype by mechanisms involving glutamate-induced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) hyperexcitability. The astrocytic glutamate transporters remove excessive glutamate surrounding the synapse. However, the impact of supraphysiological doses of ND on glutamate(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Stroke is a devastating disease. Both excitotoxicity and oxidative stress play important roles in ischemic brain injury, along with harmful impacts on ischemic cerebral tissue. As guanosine plays an important neuroprotective role in the central nervous system, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of(More)
Ammonia is a key toxin in the precipitation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with liver failure. In response to ammonia, various toxic events are triggered in astroglial cells, and alterations in brain glutamate communication are common. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that has been extensively studied in(More)
Environmental enrichment is known to induce plastic changes in the brain, including morphological changes in hippocampal neurons, with increases in synaptic and spine densities. In recent years, the evidence for a role of astrocytes in regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity has increased, and it is likely that morphological and functional changes(More)
Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) is commonly used as a convulsant drug. The enhanced seizure susceptibility induced by kindling is probably attributable to plastic changes in the synaptic efficacy. Adenosine and guanosine act both as important neuromodulators and neuroprotectors with mostly inhibitory effects on neuronal activity. Adenosine and guanosine can be(More)
It is well known that glutamatergic excitotoxicity and oxidative stress are implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The nucleoside guanosine exerts neuroprotective effects through the antagonism against glutamate neurotoxicity and antioxidant properties. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of guanosine in an animal(More)