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BACKGROUND The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an(More)
SUMMARY Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has changed substantially during the past decade, as new biological disease-modifying treatments have been introduced in a field where only symptomatic pharmacological treatment had been available. The new treatments come at a high cost, between $ 8-12,000 per patient and year. Consequently, it must be expected(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate current costs and quality of life (utility) of patients treated with disease modifying drugs (DMDs) in the United States, and to investigate the effect of disease severity on costs and utility. METHODS Data on demographics, disease information, resource utilization (including work capacity), and utility were collected directly from(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess overall resource consumption, work capacity and quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis in nine European countries. METHODS Information on resource consumption related to multiple sclerosis, informal care by relatives, productivity losses and overall quality of life (utility) was collected with a standardised pre-tested(More)
The present study aims at estimating the total cost of MS in Europe based on actual cost data from nine countries and published epidemiological evidence. The epidemiological data are reported as 12 months prevalence estimates and cost data calculated as annual cost per patient at given levels of disease severity. Cost data are extrapolated to the rest of(More)
Introduction MS is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative immuno-mediated disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by inflammation, demyelination and primary or secondary axonal degeneration. Clinical manifestations are signs of neurological dysfunctions, e.g. visual and sensory disturbances, limb weakness, gait problems and bladder and bowel(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate costs, benefits, and cost effectiveness of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor treatment over one year in routine clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS At four rheumatology units in southern Sweden treatment of 160 consecutive patients with RA was started with either etanercept or infliximab. The economic analysis was based on 116(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the effect of nocturia on productivity, vitality and utility in a selected group of professionally active individuals with nocturia, compared with matched controls, and investigate the effect of symptom severity, to test the hypothesis that lack of sleep caused by frequent sleep interruptions could reduce an individuals' daytime energy(More)
OBJECTIVE When treatments with the potential to change the natural history of a disease are introduced, their longer-term effect on costs and quality of life (utility) has to be estimated using economic models. However, to remain useful tools, models must be updated when new information becomes available. Our earlier models in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have(More)