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The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence(More)
Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic(More)
Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous(More)
To the Editor: Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is held responsible for 3 human pandemics: the Justinian plague (5th–7th century), the Black Death (13th–15th century), and modern plague (1870s to present). In 1894, Alexandre Yersin identifi ed Y. pestis during an epidemic of plague in Hong Kong (1). However, whether Y. pestis was indeed(More)
Yersinia pestis has been identified as the causative agent of the Black Death pandemic in the 14(th) century. However, retrospective diagnostics in human skeletons after more than 600 years are critical. We describe a strategy following a modern diagnostic algorithm and working under strict ancient DNA regime for the identification of medieval human plague(More)
During the early Holocene two main paleoamerican cultures thrived in Brazil: the Tradição Nordeste in the semi-desertic Sertão and the Tradição Itaparica in the high plains of the Planalto Central. Here we report on paleodietary singals of a Paleoamerican found in a third Brazilian ecological setting--a riverine shellmound, or sambaqui, located in the(More)
Isotopic mapping has become an indispensable tool for the assessment of mobility and trade of the past. However, modeling and understanding spatio-temporal isotopic variation is complicated by the small number of available samples, potential mobility of the investigated samples, sample preservation quality, uncertainty of measurements, and so forth. In this(More)
A valid age at death estimation is required in historical and also forensic anthropology. Tooth cementum annulation (TCA) is a method for age at death estimation of adult individuals. The method is based on light microscope images taken from tooth-root cross sections. The age is then estimated by manually counting the cementum incremental lines and adding(More)