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Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping provides a powerful method for fine-structure localization of rare disease genes, but has not yet been widely applied to common disease. We sought to design a systematic approach for LD mapping and apply it to the localization of a gene (IBD5) conferring susceptibility to Crohn disease. The key issues are: (i) to detect a(More)
The potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus R for producing exopolysaccharide (EPS) when grown on basal minimum medium supplemented with glucose or lactose was investigated. EPS production by L. rhamnosus R is partially growth associated and about 500 mg of EPS per liter was synthesized with both sugars. The product yield coefficient (Y(EPS/S)) was 3.15(More)
The complete nucleotide sequences for pNAC1 (3538bp) from strain RW048 as well as for pNAC2 (3684bp) and pNAC3 (10,224bp) from strain RW041 of Bifidobacterium longum were determined. The largest ORF (repB) of pNAC1 encodes a putative protein similar to those involved in a rolling-circle (RC) replication mechanism, which was confirmed by demonstration of(More)
Spoilage bacteria in milk are controlled by treatments such as thermization, microfiltration and addition of carbon dioxide. However, little information is known about the changes in microbial communities during subsequent cold storage of treated milk. Culture-dependent methods and a direct molecular approach combining 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and(More)
The increase of drug resistance among bacterial pathogens is currently a major threat in hospital settings. New and more efficient antibiotic compounds have to be developed to fight infectious diseases. In the present work, a deferred antagonism test was used to determine the activity of different bacterial strains producing either a mutacin or a(More)
Gene expression in response to technological variations can influence fermentation and flavor generation in Cheddar cheese, and can vary from one lactococcal strain to another, perceived as differences in starter performance. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of cheese cooking temperature at 38 °C and salting on the transcriptional(More)
Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was compared among three strains of lactobacilli. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 9595M can be classified among the highest EPS-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria reported to date with a maximum EPS production of 1275 mg L−1. Under controlled pH, no significant differences in the quantity of EPS produced could be(More)
Peptide antibiotics, particularly lantibiotics, are good candidates for replacing antibiotics to which bacteria have become resistant. In order to compare two such lantibiotics with two antibiotics, the MICs of nisin A, mutacin B-Ny266, vancomycin, and oxacillin against various bacterial pathogens were determined. The results indicate that nisin A and(More)
Mutacin-producing strains have been classified into 24 groups (designated by letters A to X) by similarity in activity spectra and cross-immunity. Similarity in primary structure among these groups can be revealed using DNA hybridization. The amino acid sequences of four mutacins (B-Ny266, 1140/mutacin III and mutacin II) were used to design two DNA probes(More)
The exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis gene clusters of four Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains consist of chromosomal DNA regions of 18.5 kb encoding 17 ORFs that are highly similar among the strains. However, under identical conditions, EPS production varies considerably among these strains, from 61 to 1611 mg l(-1). Fifteen genes are co-transcribed(More)