Giovanni Solinas

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The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha signals both cell survival and death. The biological outcome of TNFalpha treatment is determined by the balance between NF-kappaB and Jun kinase (JNK) signaling; NF-kappaB promotes survival, whereas JNK enhances cell death. Critically, identity of a JNK substrate that promotes TNFalpha-induced(More)
Obesity-induced insulin resistance is a major factor in the etiology of type 2 diabetes, and Jun kinases (JNKs) are key negative regulators of insulin sensitivity in the obese state. Activation of JNKs (mainly JNK1) in insulin target cells results in phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) at serine and threonine residues that inhibit insulin(More)
Inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. It is now established that obesity results in a state of chronic low-grade inflammation thought to contribute to several metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and pancreatic islet dysfunction. The protein kinases JNK1 and IKKbeta have been found to serve as critical(More)
The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are key regulators of inflammation and interfere with insulin action in cultured cells and whole animals. Obesity increases total JNK activity, and JNK1, but not JNK2, deficiency results in reduced adiposity and improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, a higher-than-normal level of JNK activation is observed in(More)
Saturated fatty acids (FA) exert adverse health effects and are more likely to cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes than unsaturated FA, some of which exert protective and beneficial effects. Saturated FA, but not unsaturated FA, activate Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which has been linked to obesity and insulin resistance in mice and humans.(More)
JNKs are attractive targets for treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes. A sustained increase in JNK activity was observed in dietary and genetic models of obesity in mice, whereas JNK deficiency prevented obesity-induced insulin resistance. A similar insulin-sensitizing effect was seen upon treatment of obese mice with JNK inhibitors. We now demonstrate(More)
JNK is a stress-activated protein kinase that modulates pathways implicated in a variety of disease states. JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP1) is a scaffolding protein that enhances JNK signaling by creating a proximity effect between JNK and upstream kinases. A minimal peptide region derived from JIP1 is able to inhibit JNK activity both in vitro and in(More)
We have isolated two overlapping cDNAs coding for a MYB-related protein expressed in aerobic and anaerobic rice (Oryza sativa) roots and coleoptiles. Analysis of their sequences reveals some peculiar features, suggesting the presence of post-transcriptional regulation events: an upstream ORF, two unspliced introns and a putative leucine zipper in the ORF(More)
The mechanisms by which CRH and related peptides (i.e. the CRH/urocortin system) exert their control over thermogenesis and weight regulation have until now focused only upon their effects on brain centers controlling sympathetic outflow. Using a method that involves repeated oxygen uptake determinations in intact mouse skeletal muscle, we report here that(More)
Dynamic changes in body weight have long been recognized as important indicators of risk for debilitating diseases. While weight loss or impaired growth can lead to muscle wastage, as well as to susceptibility to infections and organ dysfunctions, the development of excess fat predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, with insulin(More)