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OBJECTIVE To determine the role of oxidative stress in mediating HIV dementia and to identify novel therapeutic compounds that may block this oxidative stress. METHODS Brain tissue from patients with HIV encephalitis and macaques with simian immune deficiency virus encephalitis was immunostained for lipid peroxidation. Oxidized proteins in CSF of patients(More)
OBJECTIVE Differences in diagnostic criteria and methods have led to mixed results regarding the metabolite pattern of HIV-associated brain injury in relation to neurocognitive impairment. Therefore, a multicenter MRS consortium was formed to evaluate the neurometabolites in HIV patients with or without cognitive impairment. METHODS Proton magnetic(More)
Cerebral metabolite disturbances occur among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, and are thought to reflect neuropathology, including proinflammatory processes, and neuronal loss. HIV-associated cortical atrophy continues to occur, though its basis is not well understood, and the relationship of cerebral metabolic disturbance to structural(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) to measurements of neuropathy severity and progression of HIV disease. BACKGROUND SN affects 30% of individuals with AIDS, and treatment is often ineffective. Recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) has been proposed(More)
Cerebral atrophy is a well-described, but poorly understood complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite reduced prevalence of HIV-associated dementia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, HIV continues to affect the brains of patients with chronic infection. In this study we examine patterns of brain volume loss(More)
HIV-infected individuals with severe immune suppression are more likely to develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders than those with preserved immune function. While partial immune reconstitution occurs in those with severe immune suppression after starting combined antiretroviral therapy, it is not established whether improvement in immune function(More)
The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of HIV dementia and neuropsychological testing abnormalities in a new cohort of HIV-seropositive individuals at high risk for HIV dementia and to compare these results to a cohort before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART has been associated with improvements in(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether baseline levels of plasma and CSF HIV RNA, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), or macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) are predictors of incident HIV-associated dementia (HIVD) in a cohort with advanced HIV infection. METHODS A total(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the incidence of and risk factors for distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) in a cohort of HIV-infected subjects. METHODS We followed 272 subjects semiannually for up to 30 months. DSP was diagnosed if subjects had decreased or absent ankle jerks, decreased or absent vibratory perception at the toes, or decreased pinprick or temperature(More)
We report a family with band heterotopia in a mother and daughter and lissencephaly in a son (X-linked inheritance pattern). Postmortem examination of the boy revealed classical lissencephaly and, among other findings, simplified and discontinuous inferior olives without inferior olivary heterotopia. The absence of inferior olivary heterotopia may(More)