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Based on published prevalence studies, we used two different methodologies to project the number of individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) in Western Europe's 5 most and the world's 10 most populous nations. The number of individuals with PD over age 50 in these countries was between 4.1 and 4.6 million in 2005 and will double to between 8.7 and 9.3(More)
Cerebral atrophy is a well-described, but poorly understood complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite reduced prevalence of HIV-associated dementia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, HIV continues to affect the brains of patients with chronic infection. In this study we examine patterns of brain volume loss(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) to measurements of neuropathy severity and progression of HIV disease. BACKGROUND SN affects 30% of individuals with AIDS, and treatment is often ineffective. Recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) has been proposed(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the role of oxidative stress in mediating HIV dementia and to identify novel therapeutic compounds that may block this oxidative stress. METHODS Brain tissue from patients with HIV encephalitis and macaques with simian immune deficiency virus encephalitis was immunostained for lipid peroxidation. Oxidized proteins in CSF of patients(More)
Cerebral metabolite disturbances occur among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, and are thought to reflect neuropathology, including proinflammatory processes, and neuronal loss. HIV-associated cortical atrophy continues to occur, though its basis is not well understood, and the relationship of cerebral metabolic disturbance to structural(More)
OBJECTIVE Differences in diagnostic criteria and methods have led to mixed results regarding the metabolite pattern of HIV-associated brain injury in relation to neurocognitive impairment. Therefore, a multicenter MRS consortium was formed to evaluate the neurometabolites in HIV patients with or without cognitive impairment. METHODS Proton magnetic(More)
The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of HIV dementia and neuropsychological testing abnormalities in a new cohort of HIV-seropositive individuals at high risk for HIV dementia and to compare these results to a cohort before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART has been associated with improvements in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether cognitive impairment and brain injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) persist in the setting of HAART. DESIGN This study is an observational cohort study. METHODS MRS was performed in 268 patients: HIV-negative controls (N = 28), HIV-positive neuroasymptomatic individuals (N = 124), and(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether baseline levels of plasma and CSF HIV RNA, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), or macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) are predictors of incident HIV-associated dementia (HIVD) in a cohort with advanced HIV infection. METHODS A total(More)
OBJECTIVE This investigation examined whether the immune dysregulation that characterises elderly informal caregivers (e.g., spousal caregivers of dementia patients) extends to a younger caregiver population, specifically spousal carers of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHOD MS spousal caregivers (n=41, mean age 43 years, 14 women, 27 men) and(More)