Giovanni Schifitto

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Based on published prevalence studies, we used two different methodologies to project the number of individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) in Western Europe's 5 most and the world's 10 most populous nations. The number of individuals with PD over age 50 in these countries was between 4.1 and 4.6 million in 2005 and will double to between 8.7 and 9.3(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether cognitive impairment and brain injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) persist in the setting of HAART. DESIGN This study is an observational cohort study. METHODS MRS was performed in 268 patients: HIV-negative controls (N = 28), HIV-positive neuroasymptomatic individuals (N = 124), and(More)
The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of HIV dementia and neuropsychological testing abnormalities in a new cohort of HIV-seropositive individuals at high risk for HIV dementia and to compare these results to a cohort before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART has been associated with improvements in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the role of oxidative stress in mediating HIV dementia and to identify novel therapeutic compounds that may block this oxidative stress. METHODS Brain tissue from patients with HIV encephalitis and macaques with simian immune deficiency virus encephalitis was immunostained for lipid peroxidation. Oxidized proteins in CSF of patients(More)
Cerebral atrophy is a well-described, but poorly understood complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite reduced prevalence of HIV-associated dementia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, HIV continues to affect the brains of patients with chronic infection. In this study we examine patterns of brain volume loss(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether antiretroviral regimens with good central nervous system (CNS) penetration control HIV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and improve cognition. DESIGN Multisite longitudinal observational study. SETTING Research clinics. STUDY PARTICIPANTS One hundred and one individuals with advanced HIV beginning or changing a new potent(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether baseline levels of plasma and CSF HIV RNA, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), or macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) are predictors of incident HIV-associated dementia (HIVD) in a cohort with advanced HIV infection. METHODS A total(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate neuropathic sign/symptom rates with initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected ART-naive patients, and to investigate risk factors for: peripheral neuropathy and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (SPN), recovery from peripheral neuropathy/SPN after neurotoxic ART (nART) discontinuation, and the absence of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (SN) within a multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial (ACTG 291). BACKGROUND SN affects 30% of individuals with AIDS, is worsened by neurotoxic antiretrovirals, and its treatment is often ineffective. NGF is trophic(More)
OBJECTIVE Differences in diagnostic criteria and methods have led to mixed results regarding the metabolite pattern of HIV-associated brain injury in relation to neurocognitive impairment. Therefore, a multicenter MRS consortium was formed to evaluate the neurometabolites in HIV patients with or without cognitive impairment. METHODS Proton magnetic(More)