Giovanni Schifitto

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The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of HIV dementia and neuropsychological testing abnormalities in a new cohort of HIV-seropositive individuals at high risk for HIV dementia and to compare these results to a cohort before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART has been associated with improvements in(More)
The inter-site and intra-site variability of system performance of MRI scanners (due to site-dependent and time-variant variations) can have significant adverse effects on the integration of multi-center DTI data. Measurement errors in accuracy and precision of each acquisition determine both the inter-site and intra-site variability. In this study,(More)
Few studies have described the metabolic substrates underlying neuropsychological performance in HIV infection or examined the specificity of these relationships. The authors performed magnetic resonance spectroscopic and neuropsychological evaluations on 61 patients with AIDS dementia complex (stages 1-3) and 39 HIV-positive neurologically asymptomatic(More)
The relationship of the cellular changes in the HIV-infected brain to the onset and progression of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) remains uncertain. We undertook an in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study and used factor analysis to identify specific cellular and regional brain changes that may serve as metabolic markers of ADC. The ratio of(More)
PURPOSE To demonstrate the technical feasibility and reliability of a multi-center study characterizing regional levels of the brain metabolite ratios choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr, markers of glial cell activity, and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/Cr, a marker of mature neurons, in subjects with AIDS dementia complex (ADC). MATERIALS AND(More)
OBJECTIVES To develop a novel statistical method for analysis of longitudinal DTI data in individual subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS The proposed SPatial REgression Analysis of Diffusion tensor imaging (SPREAD) method incorporates a spatial regression fitting of DTI data among neighboring voxels and a resampling method among data at different times. Both(More)
Emerging evidence suggests that CNS injury and neurocognitive impairment persist in the setting of chronic HIV infection and combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). Yet, whether neurological injury can progress in this setting remains uncertain. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and neurocognitive and clinical assessments were performed over 2 years in 226(More)
HIV-infected individuals with severe immune suppression are more likely to develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders than those with preserved immune function. While partial immune reconstitution occurs in those with severe immune suppression after starting combined antiretroviral therapy, it is not established whether improvement in immune function(More)
Cerebral metabolite disturbances occur among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, and are thought to reflect neuropathology, including proinflammatory processes, and neuronal loss. HIV-associated cortical atrophy continues to occur, though its basis is not well understood, and the relationship of cerebral metabolic disturbance to structural(More)
Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART), a majority of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV) infected individuals continually develop HIV - Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), indicating that host inflammatory mediators, in addition to viral proteins, may be contributing to these disorders. Consistent with this notion,(More)