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Laser interferometry, as applied in cutting-edge length and displacement metrology, requires detailed analysis of systematic effects due to diffraction, which may affect the measurement uncertainty. When the measurements aim at subnanometer accuracy levels, it is possible that the description of interferometer operation by paraxial and scalar approximations(More)
In displacement measurements by two-beam interferometers, the wavefront curvature of a laser beam causes a systematic increase of the fringe period. This increase depends on beam collimation: It is null for a plane wave and proportional to the squared divergence of the beam. With interfering beams not perfectly recombined, an additional fringe-period error(More)
The application of lasers in high-precision measurements and the demand for accuracy make the plane-wave model of laser beams unsatisfactory. Measurements of the variance of the transverse components of the photon impulse are essential for wavelength determination. Accuracy evaluation of the relevant calculations is thus an integral part of the assessment(More)
In this paper the Bayesian analysis is applied to assign a probability density to the value of a quantity having a definite sign. This analysis is logically consistent with the results, positive or negative, of repeated measurements. Results are used to estimate the atom density shift in a caesium fountain clock. The comparison with the classical(More)
The Avogadro constant links the atomic and the macroscopic properties of matter. Since the molar Planck constant is well known via the measurement of the Rydberg constant, it is also closely related to the Planck constant. In addition, its accurate determination is of paramount importance for a definition of the kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant.(More)