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1. Searching for the structural requirements improving the potency and the stereoselectivity of Na(+) channel blockers as antimyotonic agents, new derivatives of tocainide, in which the chiral carbon atom is constrained in a rigid alpha-proline or pyrrolo-imidazolic cycle, were synthesized as pure enantiomers. 2. Their ability to block Na(+) currents,(More)
To search for potent use-dependent blockers of skeletal muscle sodium channels as potential antimyotonic agents, the actions of newly synthesized chiral analogs of mexiletine and tocainide were tested in vitro on sodium currents of single fibers of frog semitendinosus muscle by vaseline-gap voltage clamp method. The effect of each drug on the maximal peak(More)
A series of tocainide chiral analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in vitro, in pure enantiomeric form, as use-dependent blockers of skeletal muscle sodium channels to better understand the structural requirements responsible for the antimyotonic activity. The voltage clamp recordings showed a remarkable increase of both potency and(More)
The antimyotonic activity of chiral derivatives of mexiletine and tocainide, selected as potent use-dependent blockers of skeletal muscle sodium channels, was evaluated in vivo acutely in myotonic ADR mice. The compounds had either aromatic (Me4 and Me6) or branched isopropyl groups (Me5 and To1) on the asymmetric centre, or had this latter one methylene(More)
In striated fibers, the activity of mexiletine (Mex)-like sodium channel blockers is strongly modulated by the part of the molecule nearby the asymmetric carbon atom. A lipophilic aromatic phenyl group at this levels, as in 2-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-1-phenylethanamine (Me4), markedly increases drug potency, while an increased distance between the stereogenic(More)
We previously showed that the β-adrenoceptor modulators, clenbuterol and propranolol, directly blocked voltage-gated sodium channels, whereas salbutamol and nadolol did not (Desaphy et al., 2003), suggesting the presence of two hydroxyl groups on the aromatic moiety of the drugs as a molecular requisite for impeding sodium channel block. To verify such an(More)
Optically active mexiletine analogues were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as use-dependent blockers of skeletal muscle sodium channels. The mexiletine analogues were obtained by replacing either the methyl group on the stereogenic center of mexiletine [1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine] with a phenyl group or modifying the phenoxy moiety (by removal(More)
The optical isomers (-)-(S)- and (+)-(R)-3-(2, 6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-methyl-1-propanamine (Me2), homologues of the antiarrhythmic and antimyotonic drug mexiletine (Mex), were synthesized and assayed as new potential antimyotonic agents. As observed with Mex, Me2 exhibits an enantioselective behaviour. Tests carried out on sodium currents of single muscle(More)
The antiarrhythmic drug tocainide (5a) and some related chiral alpha-amino and alpha-imino anilides (5b-e) were synthesized in optically active form. The antinociceptive effects of the different stereoisomers of these compounds were examined and it was found that the analgesic effect of tocainide is due only to its (-)-(R)-enantiomer. Benzyl replacement for(More)
Both enantiomers of "para-hydroxymexiletine" (PHM), one of the main metabolites of mexiletine, were synthesized and fully characterized. Properties of (R)- and (S)-PHM, in terms of blocking potency and stereoselectivity on frog skeletal muscle Na(+) channels, were evaluated. The presence of a hydroxy group on the aryloxy moiety in the 4-position, as in PHM,(More)